حقوق حاکم بر فرآیند برچیدن تاسیسات نفت و گاز

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه تهران

2 دانشجوی دکترا رشته حقوق نفت و گاز پردیس فارابی دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

برچیدن تاسیسات و تجهیزات نفتی، بخشی از عملیات اکتشاف و تولید نفت است که شامل مراحل بستن چاه­ها، جمع­آوری تاسیسات و پاکسازی محل عملیات نفتی می­شود. به دلیل پیچیدگی مالی، اقتصادی، فنی و زیست­محیطی مجموعه این فرآیند، کشورهای میزبان ناگزیر از وضع قوانین و مقررات برای تنظیم مسایل مرتبط با برچیدن میان خود و شرکت­های نفتی هستند. با وجود این ضرورت، هنوز برخی از کشورها فاقد سیستم قانونگذاری در مورد برچیدن هستند. محتوی قوانین و مقررات کشورهای دارای سیستم قانونگذاری نیز تحت تاثیر عواملی مانند پیشرفت تکنولوژی و افزایش آگاهی زیست­محیطی با یکدیگر متفاوت است. بررسی قوانین و مقررات برچیدن در ایران و شناسایی خلأهای قانون­گذاری، مستلزم مطالعه تطبیقی مفاد قوانین کشورهای پیشرو نفتی و سایر کشورها است. بنابراین در این پژوهش، ابتدا قوانین و مقررات حاکم بر فرآیند برچیدن تاسیسات نفت و گاز در کشورهای با ظرفیت بالای تولید مانند انگلستان، نروژ، امریکا، کانادا و سپس کشورهایی با ظرفیت تولید محدودتر مانند نیجریه، چین، تایلند، استرالیا، نیوزیلند، برونئی، اندونزی و هلند با رویکرد تطبیقی تحلیل می­شوند و سپس به موضوع قوانین و مقررات برچیدن در ایران می­پردازد. 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

the law governing the decommissioning of oil and gas installations

نویسندگان [English]

  • abdolhossein shiravi 1
  • mahin falahati 2
1 farabi campus, university of tehran
2 phd student oil and gas law in farabi campes, tehran unuversity
چکیده [English]

Decommissioning of petroleum installation and facilities is part of E&P operations that consists of plugging of wells, dismantling of installations and clearance of the site. Technical, financial, economic costs and environmental issues associated with the decommissioning process, compel host countries to enact laws and regulations dealing with all the details of decommissioning operations. However, in some countries, there is no system of law governing the decommissioning project. In the countries with the decommissioning law system, the contents of the laws and regulations are different due to the level of technology and environmental awareness. Identifying law-making gaps in the decommissioning law system of Iran requires the comparative study of the other countries′ laws and regulations especially oil pioneer countries. Therefore, this article at first, analyses the laws and regulations governing the decommissioning of oil and gas installations in the countries with more production capacity such as the UK, the US, Norway and Canada and the countries with lower production capacity such as Nigeria, China, Thailand, Australia, New Zealand, Brunei, Indonesia and the Netherlands comparatively and then deals with decommissioning laws and regulations in Iran.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Decommissioning
  • petroleum installation and facilities
  • comparative study
  • countries′ laws and regulations
  • Iran′ laws and regulations
الف- فارسی
کتاب
-        سجادیان، ولی احمد و دیگران، (1393)، راهنمای جامع مهندسی نفت، زمین­شناسی نفت، اکتشاف، حفاری و تولید، چاپ دوم، تهران: کتاب آوا.
 
مقاله‌ها
-        رضائیان مهر، مصطفی و جواد کاشانی، (1394)، «برچیدن تاسیسات نفت و گاز دریایی از منظر حقوق بین‌الملل»، بهار، سال هفدهم، فصلنامه پژوهش حقوق عمومی، شماره 50.
-        شیروی، عبدالحسین و مهین فلاحتی، (1396)، «چارچوب قراردادی فرآیند برچیدن تاسیسات و تجهیزات نفتی»،  دو فصلنامه حقوق خصوصی پردیس فارابی دانشگاه تهران، بهار و تابستان، دوره 14، شماره 1.
 
آیین‌نامه‌ها و قوانین

-        آیین­نامه احداث و استفاده از تاسیسات در فلات قاره و منطقه انحصاری اقتصادی ایران در خلیج فارس و دریای عمان، روزنامه رسمی شماره 15104- 17/ 10/ 1375.

-        قانون الحاق ایران به کنواسیون جلوگیری از آلودگی دریایی ناشی از دفع مواد زاید و دیگر مواد، روزنامه رسمی شماره 15042، مورخ 30/7/1375.

-        قانون الحاق ایران به تشریفات (پروتکل) مورخ 1996 (1375) کنوانسیون پیشگیری از آلودگی دریایی ناشی از تخلیه پسماند و سایر مواد به گونه اصلاح­شده در سال­های 2006 (1385) و 2009 (1388)، شماره 496/53948، مورخ 28/7/1394.

-        قانون اجازه الحاق به پروتکل راجع­به آلودگی دریایی ناشی از اکتشاف و استخراج از فلات قاره، روزنامه رسمی شماره 13582، مورخ 4/8/1370.

-            قانون حفاظت دریا و رودخانه­های مرزی از آلودگی با مواد نفتی"(روزنامه رسمی، شماره 9086، مورخ 19/12/1354

-            قانون حفاظت از دریاها و رودخانه­های قابل کشتی­رانی در برابر آلودگی نفتی، ابلاغیه شماره 24/41844 مورخ 31/6/1389.

-            قانون کنوانسیون چارچوب حفاظت از محیط زیست دریایی دریای خزر، روزنامه رسمی شماره 17573، مورخ 8/4/1384.

-            قانون مدیریت پسماندها، روزنامه رسمی شماره 17270، مورخ 27/3/1383.

-            آیین­نامه اجرایی قانون مدیریت پسماند، مصوب 10/5/1384.

-        شرایط عمومی، ساختار و الگوی قراردادهای بالادستی صنعت نفت ایران" به شماره 57225/ت53367 مورخ 16/5/1395 و 69978/ت53421 مورخ 10/6/1395.

 
ب- انگلیسی
Books
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 -            Gallant, Jeremy, (2004), Estimating and Disclosing Decommissioning, Abandonment, and Reclamation Liability in the Upstream Oil and Gas Industry, Canada: The University of Calgary.
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 -            Gorman, D. G., & Neilson, J, (Eds.), (2012), Decommissioning offshore Structures, Springer Science & Business Media.
 -            Orman, Daniel Geelan, and June Neilson, eds, (2012), Decommissioning offshore Structure, Springer Science & Business Media.
 
Articles
-            Adedayo, Ayoade Morakinyo, (2011), “Environmental Risk and Decommissioning of Offshore Oil Platforms in Nigeria”, Nigeria NIALS Journal, Vol. 1. N0.1.
 -            Adetoro, S. H, (2009), “Decommissioning Obligations in the Energy Industry: What is the Balance between Contractual Obligation and Reality?”, Minerals & Energy-Raw Materials Report, Vol. 23, No.4.
 -            Azaino, Efe Uzezi, (2012), “Iternational Decommissioning Obligations: Are there Lessons Nigeria Can Acquire from the UK’s Legal and Regulatory Framework”, Dundee University. CEPMLP Annual Review (CAR), Vol. 13, No.1.
 -            Baker, A., & Underdown, D, (1981), “Legal and Tax Problems on Abandonment”, Int'l Bus, Law, 9, 463.
 -            Bostock, John T, (1999), “The Decommissioning of Offshore Installations”, Petroleum Accounting and Financial Management Journal, Vol. 18, No. 1.
 -            Brenzina, Danielle, and Bradley Gilmour, (2003), “Protecting and Supporting the Orphan Fund: Recent Legislative and AEUB Policy Amendments Designed to Address Unfunded Liabilities of Oil and Gas Faculities in Alberta”, Alta. L. Rev, 41.
 -            Cameron, Peter, and Martha Roggenkamp, (1992), “Abandonment and Reclamation of Energy Sites and Facilities: The Netherlands”, Journal of Energy & Natural Resources Law, Vol. 10, No. 1-4.
 -            De Jonge, Boris B, (2001), “Financial Responsibility Requirements for Oil and Gas Activities Offshore Nova Scotia and Newfoundland”, Dalhousie LJ, Vol. 24.
 -            De La Fayette, L, (1998), “The London Convention 1972: Preparing for the Future”, The International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law, Vol. 13, No. 4.
 -            Desrina, R., Chairil Anwar, and Tri Muji Susantoro, (2013), “Environmental Impacts of the Oil and Gas Platform Decommissioning”, “LEMIGAS” R&D Center for Oil and Gas Technology.
 -            Fuani, Anwuli Irene, (2011), ”Environmental Regulation of Offshore (E&P) Waste Management in Nigeria: How effective”, Law Env't & Dev. J, Vol. 7.
 -            Grauberger, Jana L, (2012), “Doing Business Offshore: Staying Current in a Changing Regulatory Environment”, Annual Institute on Mineral Law, Vol. 59, No. 1.
 -            Holland, Ben, (2016), “Decommissioning in the United Kingdom Continental Shelf: Decommissioning Security Disputes”, Denning LJ, Vol. 28.
 -            Hunt, Constance D., and Holly D. Prus, (1992), “Abandonment and Reclamation of Energy Sites and Facilities: Canada”, Journal of Energy & Natural Resources Law, Vol. 10, No. 1-4.
 -            Karataeva, Elena, (2014), “Can the Caspian Sea Survive its Own Oil? Environmental Regulation of the Offshore Oil and Gas Industry in the Caspian Sea”, The International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law, Vol. 29, No. 3.
 -            Kemp, Alexander G, (1992), “Economic and Fiscal Aspects of Oil and Gas Field Abandonment: The UK Continental Shelf”, Energy Policy, Vol. 20, No. 1.
 -            Marce Hammerson, (2008), “Decommissioning Offshore Oil and Gas Facilities: Industry Contracts and Security Arrangements”, IBC's Conference on Counting the Costs of Decommissioning in Oil & Gas, Aberdeen 18 and 19 June. 
 -            Marion, M. A., Massicotte, M. G., & Duhn, J. L, (2014), “Canada's Aging Oil and Gas Infrastructure: Who Will Pay: The Public and Private Cost Recovery Frameworks”, Alta. L. Rev., Vol. 52, No. 2.
 -            O'Connor, M., & Bruining, J, (2001), “Regulation of Offshore Petroleum Activities in Ireland”, Journal of Energy & Natural Resources Law, Vol, 19, No.2.
 -            Ofuani, Anwuli Irene, (2011), “Environmental Regulation of Offshore (E&P) Waste Management in Nigeria: How Effective”, Law Env't & Dev. J, Vol. 7.
 -            Osmundsen, Petter, and Ragnar Tveterås, (2003), “Decommissioning of Petroleum Installations- Major Policy Issues”, Energy Policy, 31, No. 15.
 -            Parente, Virginia, et al, (2006), “Offshore Decommissioning Issues: Deductibility and Transferability”, Energy Policy, Vol. 34, No. 15.
 -            Prescott, Sarah, (2013), “Influence of Regulation on Oil and Gas Well Abandonment Rates in Alberta”, Canada, SS-AAEA Journal of Agricultural Economics.
 -            Robinson, Barry, (2014), “The Inactive Well Compliance Program: Alberta’s Latest Attempt to Bring the Inactive Well Problem under Control”.
 -            Salcido, Rachael. E, (2005), “Enduring Optimism: Examining the Rig-to-reef Bargain”, Ecology LQ, Vol. 32.
-            Vlavianos, Nickie, (2001), “Liability for Suspension/Discontinuation, Abandonment and Reclamation in Alberta: An Update”, Alta. L. Rev, Vol. 39, No. 4.
 -            Vinogradov, Sergei, (1996), “Regulation of Offshore Petroleum Activities under New Russian Legislation”, Journal of Energy & Natural Resources Law, Vol. 14, No. 4.
 -            West, Soalabo, (2014), “The Decommissioning of Offshore Oil and Gas Installations and Structures in Nigeria and South Africa in the Context of International Best Practices”, PhD diss, University of Cape Town.
 
Internet Resources
-            Arctic offshore oil and gas guidelines, 2009; available at:  https://oaarchive.arctic-council.org/handle/11374/62, Last Visited: 21 July 2018.
 -            Bureau Veritas, Decommissioning on the UK Continental Shelf-an Overview of Regulations, Version 02 January 2011; available at: http:// www. bureauveritas. co.uk/QALDNKHI/BV_Decommissioning+document_low+res-v3.pdf, last visited: 21 July 2018.
 -            Commmission of the European Communities, Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament on Removal and Disposal of Disused Offshore Oil and Gas Installations, Brussels,18.02.1998, available at: http://aei.pitt.edu/5324/1/5324.pdf. Last visited: 21 July 2018.
 -            Day Jonse, China Issues Provisional Regulations for the Abandonment of Offshore Petroleum Facilities, available at: http:// www. jonesday. com/ china_issues_provisional/ Decommissioning news, May 2016, available at: http://decomnorthsea.com/news/decom-news-magazine, last visited: 21 July 2018
 -            Decommissioning Offshore Petroleum Facilities in Commonwealth Waters Australia, available at: https:// www. nopsema. gov. au/ assets/ Publications/A551325.pdf, last visited: 21 July 2018.
 -            Draft Thailand Decommissioning Guidelines for Upstream Installations, 2009, available at: http:// www. ptit. org/d ownload/ webdecom/ Draft%20Thailand%20Decommissioning%20Guidelines%20for%20Upstream%20Installations%20-%20Final.pdf, last visited: 21 July 2018.
 -            Gibson, Gream, “The Decommissioning of Offshore Oil and Gas Installations: A Review of Current Legislation, Fiscal Regimes and the Apportunities for Shetland”, available at: http://fliphtml5.com/bppm/vutr, last visited: 21 July 2018.
 -            HM Treasury, “Decommissioning Relief Deeds: Increasing Tax Certainty for Oil and Gas Investment in the UK Continental Shelf”, July 2012, available at: https:// www. gov. uk/ government/ consultations/ decommissioning-relief-deeds- increasing- tax- certainty- for- oil- and- gas- investment- in- the- uk-continental-shelf., last visited: 21 July 2018.
  -             “Norwegian Oil and Gas Recommended Guidelines for Decommissioning Security Agreement”; available at:  https:// www. norskoljeoggass. no/ Global/ Retningslinjer/ Juridisk/128%20-%20 Recommended%20 guidelines%20 for%20 decommissioning%20 security% 20agreement%20 for%20 removal%20obligations%20-%20 use %20 of% 20model %20clauses.pdf, Last visited: 21 July 2018.
 -            United Nations Environment Programme, Mediterranean Action Plan, 1st offshore protocol working group meeting, Dealing with decommissioning costs of offshore oil and gas field installations: an appraisal of existing regimes, Valletta,Malta, 13-14 June 2013, available at: http:// www. rempec. org/admin/store/wyswigImg/file/News/Forthcoming%20Meetings/Offshore%20Protocol%20WG%20(Malta,%2013-14%20June%202013/WG%20384-%20INF.4%20-%20IMLI%20Doc%20-%20David%20Testa%20%20-%20E.pdf. Last visited 21 July 2018.
 -            World Bank Stakeholder Initiative (March 2010), Towards Sustainable Decommissioning and Closure of Oil Fields and Mines: A Toolkit to Assist Government Agencies, available at: www. eisourcebook. org/ cms/ Towards%20Sustainable%20Decommissioning.pdf,last visited: 21 July 21, 2018.
 
Laws and Regulations
-            Act 29 November 1996 No. 72 Relating to Petroleum Activities, Last Amended by Act 19 June 2009 No 104.
 -            Attachment B:  Draft Financial Security and Tax Guidelines, 2009.
 -            Code of federation regulations (CFR)- title 30- part 250- subpart Q; 30 CFR § 250.
 -            80 FR  75806; Oil and Gas and Sulfur Operations in the outer Continental Shelf- Decommissioning Cost.
 -            81 FR 53348; Oil and Gas and sulfur Operations in the outer Continental Shelf- Decommissioning Cost for Pipelines.
 -            Guidance Notes on Decommissioning of Offshore Oil and Gas Installations and Pipelines under Petroleum Act 1998 UK.
 -            Guidelines for Decommissioning, Abandonment and Restoration of the Oil and Gas Industry Assets in Brunei Darussalam, 2009.
 -            Notice to Lessees and Operators of Federal Oil and Gas Leases and Pipelines Right- of- Way Holders in the outer Continental Shelf, Golf of Mexico OCS Region (NTL No. 2010-G05).

 -            Notice to Lessees and Operators of Federal Oil and Gas Leases and Pipelines Right- of- Way Holders in the outer Continental Shelf Region; Decommissioning of Pacific OCS Facilities (NTL No. 2009- P04).

 -            Mining Regulation of the Netherlands, January 2003, part 8.5; Decommissioning of wells and boreholes.
 -            Regulations to Act Relating to Petroleum Activities. Laid down by Royal Decree 27 June 1997.
 -            Regulation Relating to Health, Safety and the Environment in the Petroleum Activities and at Certain Onshore Facilities ( the framework regulations), Last Amended 24 May 2013.