تحلیل و ارزیابی طرح کمیسیون حقوق بین‏ الملل 2008 در خصوص حقوق بین‏ الملل حاکم بر سفره‏ های آبی زیرزمینی مشترک میان دولت‌ها

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه کردستان

2 دانشگاه پیام نور

چکیده

امروزه سفره‌های آب زیرزمینی مهم‌ترین منبع تأمین آب شیرین برای انسان‌ها هستند. به همین دلیل قسمت اعظم استخراج منابع زیرزمینی توسط دولت‌ها بر این حوزه متمرکز است. مهم‌ترین چالش‌های پیش روی دولت‌ها در خصوص سفره‌های آب زیرزمینی فرامرزی مربوط به رژیم حقوقی حاکم و نحوه بهره‌برداری، استخراج و مدیریت این ذخائز می‌گردد. برای پاسخ‌گویی به این مسائل کمیسیون حقوق بین‌الملل طرح پیش‌نویس حقوق سفره‌های آب زیرزمینی فرامرزی را در دستور کار خود قرار داد. این پیش‌نویس در سال 2008 به نتیجه رسید و به مجمع عمومی ملل متحد ارائه گردید. پیش‌نویس کمیسیون حقوق بین‌الملل راجع به سفره‌های آب زیرزمینی فرامرزی علی‌رغم نواقصی که در آن وجود دارد حرکت تحسین‌برانگیزی از سوی کمیسیون حقوق بین‌الملل در جهت توسعه تدریجی و تدوین حوزه‌های نوین حقوق آب‌های زیرزمینی است. این پژوهش ضمن بررسی پیش‏نویس کمیسیون حقوق بین‏الملل راجع به حقوق سفره‌های آب زیرزمینی فرامرزی به تحلیل نقاط ضعف و قوت این پیش‌نویس می‌پردازد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Analyzing 2008 International Draft Articles on the Law of Transboundary Aquifers

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mahdi Hatami 1
  • Hassan Babaei 2
چکیده [English]

Nowadays aquifers are regarded as the world’s main drinking water supply. Such prominence has led states to resort to aquifers as a major source of water supply . Among serious challenges faced by states  in regards with transboundary aquifers are the legal regime governing the issue of sovereignty, utilization methods, exploitation preocess, and  how they are eventually managed. To adress these challenges, International Law Commission (ICL) attempted to produce a set of articles on the legal regime of transboundary aqquifers (draft articles - 2008) which was further presented to U.N |General Assembly. Despite a  few shortcomings, 2008 draft articles was an important step towards gradual development and introduction of novel trends regarding aquifers' law. This paper will review the transboundary aquifers draft articles and evaluates arguments for and against them.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Law Regime
  • Transboundary Aquifers' Laws
  • Aquifers' Laws
  • Sovereignity
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