نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار حقوق بشر دانشگاه شهیدبهشتی

2 دانشجوی دکترای حقوق عمومی، دانشکده حقوق دانشگاه شهیدبهشتی تهران، ایران

چکیده

تبعیض در حقوق بر مبنای زمینه‌های هویتی جداگانه مانند جنسیت یا نژاد و ... تعریف می‌شود. کیمبرلی کرنشاو، نظریه‌پرداز انتقادی حقوق با ارائه مفهوم درهم تنیدگی در سال 1989، رویکرد تک‌محور حقوق به تبعیض را به چالش کشید و پس از آن، رویکرد درهم تنیدگی با عناوین مختلف بسرعت در حوزه‌ها و رشته‌های مختلف گسترش یافت. در این مقاله سه نقد اساسی درهم تنیدگی به حقوق ضد تبعیض شامل ذات‌گرایی حقوقی و تجربه تبعیض، چارچوب تک‌بنیان تبعیض و رویکرد افزایشی و تبعیض چندگانه مطرح و تبعیض درهم تنیده، موقعیت‌های نابرابر بر مبنای مقوله‌بندی‌های اجتماعی تعریف می‌شود که به صورت زمینه‌ای در روابط قدرت پیچیده و به صورت متقابل شکل گرفته و در تعارض با عدالت اجتماعی است. رویکرد این مقاله تشریحی- نقادی بوده و روش مقاله نیز تشریح هرکدام از نقدهای وارده درهم تنیدگی با استناد به نمونه آرای دیوان عالی کشور است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Intersectionality and Intersectional Discrimination: The Critical Approach to Anti-Discrimination Law

نویسندگان [English]

  • َAmir Nikpey 1
  • Shiva Bazargan 2

1 The Assistant Professor in Human rights, Law Faculty of Shahid Beheshti University,Tehran,Iran.

2 Public law PhD Candidate, Law Faculty of Shahid Beheshti University.Tehran.Iran

چکیده [English]

Discrimination in law is defined on the basis of separate identity grounds such as gender or race, etc. Critical law theorist, Kimberly Crenshaw, challenged the single-axis approach to the discrimination with the introduction of the concept of intersectionality in 1989, and since then, the intersectional approach has rapidly expanded into different fields and disciplines under different ways and methodologies. In this article, three basic critiques of intersectionality with anti-discrimination law, including legal essentialism and the experience of discrimination, a single-axis framework of discrimination, and additive approach and multiple discrimination are debated. So, Intersectional discrimination is defined as unequal positions based on social categorization shaped in the complex power relations according to context and in conflict with social justice. The approach of this article is a descriptive-critical approach and the method of the article is to explain each of the criticisms of intersectionality based on the judgments of Iranian Supreme Court.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • intersectionality
  • anti-discrimination law
  • single-axis discrimination
  • intersectional discrimination
  • multiple discrimination
  • مقاله

    • نیک‌پی، امیر، «دموکراسی، جنبش اجتماعی و حقوق زنان»، مجله تحقیقات حقوقی، شماره 51، (1389).

    References

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    • European Commission, Tackling Multiple Discrimination: Practices, Policies and Laws(Brussels: DG for Employment, Social Affairs and Equal Opportunities, 2007).
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    • Spelman, Elizabeth V. Inessential Woman: Problems of Exclusion in Feminist Thought (UK: Beacon Press, 1988).

    Articles

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    Cases

    • Decision No. 16 of the Supreme Court dated 11/20/88 (with row number 12/88).
    • Degraffenreid v. General Motors 413 F Supp 142 (E D Mo 1976).
    • Hassam v. Jacobs, 5 S.A. 572 (2009).
    • Moore v Hughes Helicopters, Inc. 708 F2d 475. (9th Cir 1983).
    • The decision of Branch 26 of the Supreme Court according to the lawsuit No. 9209970909900320 dated 5/9/1392.