بررسی تطبیقی عوامل موثر بر جایگاه حقوقی- اساسی دادستانی در میان قوا

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار دانشکده حقوقی دانشگاه شهید بهشتی

2 فارغ التحصیل دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

چکیده

دادستانی از مهمترین نهادهای عمومی در جهت تحقق حاکمیت قانون و تضمین حق­ها و آزادی­های سیاسی محسوب می­شود. با این حال در مورد جایگاه حقوقی- اساسی این نهاد در میان قوا مبانی نظری یا رویه عملی واحدی وجود ندارد. در این مقاله تلاش می‌شود چهار عامل و دغدغه موثر بر موقعیت دادستانی در میان قوای سه­گانه بررسی شود. این عوامل عبارت است از: استقلال دادستانی، تفکیک مقام تعقیب و قضاوت، لزوم خط­مشی­گذاری تعقیبی و پاسخگویی. در شرایطی که قرار گرفتن دادستانی در ساختار قوه قضاییه، استقلال این نهاد را تا حد مطلوب تامین می‌کند، حضور قاضی و دادستان در یک ساختار، احتمال برهم خوردن تفکیک میان مقام قضاوت و مقام تعقیب را افزایش می­دهد. در مقابل با توجه به اختیار دادستان در اعمال صلاحدید در تعقیب، خط­مشی­گذاری در امر تعقیب و پاسخگویی این نهاد از اهمیت بسیار برخوردار است که لازمه آن ارتباط و تعامل دادستانی با دیگر قوا به ویژه قوه مجریه است. قضاوت در مورد جایگاه مطلوب دادستانی در میان قوا نیازمند ایجاد تعادل میان این چهار دغدغه و عامل موثر، با توجه به شرایط سیاسی و زمینه­های تاریخی شکل­گیری قوا در هر نظام حقوقی است. 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Comparative Analysis of the Effective Factors on Prosecution’s Legal-Constitutional Status among the Powers

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Jalali 1
  • Saeed Barkhordari 2
1 the Professor of the law faculty of Shahid Beheshti University
2 graduated of Tarbiat Modares University
چکیده [English]

The Prosecution is one of the most important public institutions in the realization of the rule of law and the protector of political rights and freedoms. However, there is no theoretical basis or practical practice regarding the position of this institution among the three powers. Affected by the legal structure and historical and political issues of each country, four factors have been influential in the formation of the position of the Prosecutor's Office: the executive structure; the structure of the judiciary; the independent prosecution; and the elected prosecution, which makes it impossible to introduce a desirable and ideal model for all systems. However, this paper will attempt to examine the four factors and concerns about the prosecution's position among the three powers. These factors include: the independence of the prosecutor's office; the separation of the Prosecution and Adjudication; and the need for prosecution policy-making and accountability. For the desirable position of the prosecution among the powers, it is necessary to strike a balance among these four concerns and effective factors in accordance with the political situation and the historical context of the formation of powers in any legal system.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Prosecution
  • Independence of Prosecution
  • status of Prosecution
  • Discretion
  • Accountability
الف- فارسی
کتاب‌ها
- روژه، پرو، (1334)، نهادهای قضایی فرانسه، ترجمه شهرام ابراهیمی و همکاران، تهران: انتشارات سلسبیل.
- آشوری، محمد، (1385)، آیین دادرسی کیفری، جلد1، چاپ یازدهم، تهران: انتشارات سمت.
 
مقاله‌ها
- حبیب­زاده، محمدجعفر؛ کرامت، قاسم و شهبازی­نیا، مهدی، (1381)، «استقلال قضایی در نظام حقوقی ایران با مطالعه تطبیقی»، نشریه حقوق، شماره 32.
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ب- انگلیسی
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Articles
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 Documents
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 -  Guidelines on the Role of Prosecutors, Adopted by the Eighth United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders, Havana, Cuba, 27 August to 7 September 1990.
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 Theses
- Abhyankar, Hemant Keshav, (2012), Investigation on Improving Quality of Technical Education in a Self-Financed Institution a Management Perspective', thesis for the PhD, Faculty of Management of Tilak Maharashtra Vidyapeeth, October.
 - Kyprianou, Despina, (2006), The Role of the Cyprus Attorney General's Office in Prosecutions: Rhetoric, Ideology and Practice, thesis for the PhD, University of London.