تأملی در خصوص بهره برداری تجاری از میراث فرهنگی زیر آب با تأکید بر رویکرد کنوانسیون 2001 یونسکو

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه حقوق عمومی و بین الملل، دانشکده حقوق، الهیات و علوم سیاسی، واحد علوم تحقیقات دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران

2 گروه حقوق بشر، دانشکده حقوق، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

در زمینه بهره‌برداری تجاری از میراث فرهنگی زیر آب، هدف فعالان تجاری؛ کسب بیشترین سود با صرف کمترین هزینه و زمان است. این هدف در تعارض با اصول باستان‌شناسی است که اِعمال آنها مستلزم سرمایه‌گذاری‌های کلان و صرف زمان بسیار است. امروزه با توجه به تنوع راه‌های بهره‌برداری تجاری (که دیگر محدود به فروش اشیاء باستانی و تاریخی نیست)، سازش میان اهداف فعالان تجاری و باستان‌شناسان دور از ذهن نخواهد بود. اسناد بین‌المللی نیز هر یک رویکرد خاص خود را اتخاذ نموده‌اند، برخی به صراحت هرگونه بهره‌برداری تجاری از این میراث را منع و برخی دیگر به طور تلویحی آن را تجویز نموده‌اند. پرسش کلیدی در این زمینه رویکرد «کنوانسیون 2001 یونسکو در خصوص حفاظت از میراث فرهنگی زیر آب» است. تحلیل دقیق مقررات کنوانسیون مزبور نشان می‌دهد که این کنوانسیون با اتخاذ رویکردی واپسگرایانه، تقریباً فروش اشیای باستانی و تاریخی را منع نموده است. موضع کنوانسیون می‌توانست در این زمینه مترقیانه‌تر و منطبق با ضرورت‌های عملی از جمله تأمین مالی پروژه‌های باستان‌شناسی در آینده باشد. 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Reflection on Commercial Exploitation of Underwater Cultural Heritage with a Focus on UNESCO’S 2001 Convention

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Razavirad 1
  • Janet Blake 2
1 Department of Public and International Law, College of Law, Theology and Political Science, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran,Iran
2 Department of Human Law, Faculty of Law, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

In the field of commercial exploitation of underwater cultural heritage, the goal of commercial operators is to maximize profits with minimal cost and time, which is in conflict with archaeological principles requiring large investments and spending so much time. Today, due to the variety of commercial exploitation methods (which are no longer restricted to the sale of archaeological and historical objects), compromise between the goals of commercial operators and archaeologists is not unlikely. International documents have also adopted their own approach, some explicitly prohibiting any commercial exploitation of this heritage, and others implicitly prescribing it. The key question is raised on approach of the "UNESCO’s 2001 Convention on the Protection of Underwater Cultural Heritage". A detailed analysis of the provisions of the Convention indicates that it has almost prohibited the sale of archaeological and historical objects by adopting a retrogressive approach. The Convention's approach could have been more progressive in this field, in line with practical requirements, including the financing of future archeological projects.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Commercial Exploitation
  • Sale
  • Commercial Operators
  • UNESCO’s 2001 Convention
  • Underwater Cultural Heritage
Books
- Camarda, Guido and Scovazzi, Tulio, (eds.), (2002), The Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage: Legal Aspects, Milan: Giuffrè Editore.
 - Forrest, Craig J. S, (2010), International Law and the Protection of Cultural Heritage, Oxon, Routledge.
 - Stemm, Gregory and Kingsley, Sean, (2010), Oceans Odyssey: Deep-Sea Shipwrecks in the English Channel, Straits of Gibraltar and Atlantic Ocean, Oxford and Oakville, CT: Oxbow Books.
 - O'Keefe, Patrick J, (2002), Shipwrecked Heritage: A Commentary on the UNESCO Convention on Underwater Cultural Heritage, Institute of Art and Law.
 
Articles
- Bederman, David J, (1998-99), “Historic Salvage and the Law of the Sea”, University of Miami Inter-American Law Review, Vol. 30, No. 1.
 - Blake, Janet E, (1996), “The Protection of Underwater Cultural Heritage”, International & Comparative Law Quarterly, Vol. 45, No. 4.
 - Bryant, Christopher. R, (2001), “The Archaeological Duty of Care: The Legal, Professional, and Cultural Struggle over Salvaging Historic Shipwrecks”, Albany Law Review, No. 65.
 - Dorsey, Wiliam R, (2000), “Historic Salvors, Marine Archaeologists, and the UNESCO Draft Convention on the Underwater Cultural Heritage”, Paper Delivered at Houston Marine Insurance Seminar 2000, available at www.houstonmarineseminar.com.
 - Dromgoole, Sarah, (2003), “2001 UNESCO Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage”, The International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law, Vol. 18, No. 1.
 - Dromgoole, Sarah, (2004), “Murky Waters for Government Policy: The Case of a 17th Century British Warship and 10 Tonnes of Gold Coins”, Marine Policy, Vol. 28, No. 3.
 - Dromgoole, Sarah and Gaskell, Nicholas, (1998), “Interests in Wreck”, in N. Palmer and E. McKendrick (eds.), Interests in Goods, London and Hong Kong: Lloyd’s of London Press, Second Edition.
- Garabello, Roberta, (2003), “The Negotiating History of the Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage”, in Roberta Garabello and Tullio Scovazzi (eds.), The Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage: Before and after the 2001 UNESCO Convention, Leiden and Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
 - Hutchinson, Gillian, (1996), “Threats to Underwater Cultural Heritage. The Problems of Unprotected Archaeological and Historic Sites, Wrecks and Objects Found at Sea”, Marine Policy, Vol. 20, No. 4.
- Marryman, John Henry, (2009), “Two Ways of Thinking about Cultural Property”, in J. Merryman, Thinking about the Elgin Marbles: Critical Essays on Cultural Property, Art and Law, Kluwer Law International, 2nd Edition.
 - Nafziger, James A. R, (2000), “Historic Salvage Law Revisited”, Ocean Development & International Law, Vol. 31, No. 1-2.
 -O'Keefe, Patrick J. and Nafziger, James A. R, (1994), “Report: The Draft Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage”, Ocean Development on International Law, Vol. 25, No. 4.
 - Parham, Dave and Stemm Gregory P, (2010), “Maritime Archaeology Business Models”, Nautical Archaeology Society Newsletter, Summer 2010.
 - Stemm, Gregory P, (2000), “Differentiation of Shipwreck Artifacts as a Resource Management Tool”, Association of Dive Contractors/Marine Technology Society UI 2000 Conference, January 2000, (available at www.shipwreck.net).
 Cases
- RMS Titanic Inc v Wrecked and Abandoned Vessel,924 F. Supp. 714, 722–723 (ED Va, 1996).
 - RMS Titanic Inc v Wrecked and Abandoned Vessel, 9 F. Supp. 2d 624,639–640 (ED Va, 1998).
 - RMS Titanic Inc v Wrecked and Abandoned Vessel, 286 F. 3d 194 (4th Cir (Va), 2002).
 Documents
- Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, “The Underwater Cultural Heritage: Report of the Committee on Culture and Education”, Document 4200-E, Strasbourg, 1978.
 - Recommendation 5 of the Scientific and Technical Advisory Body to the Meeting of States Parties, Third Meeting of the Advisory Body in April 2012 (UCH/12/3. STAB/220/9 REV, 20 April 2012).
 - UNESCO Secretariat, “Feasibility Study for the Drafting of a New Instrument for the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage”, presented to the 146th Session of the UNESCO Executive Board, Paris, 23 March 1995, Doc. 146 EX/27.