قاعده حقوق خاص؛ زمینهای برای عملیاتی شدن اصل تخصص سازمانهای بین المللی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 مربی گروه حقوق دانشگاه پیام نور، تهران، ایران

2 استادیار حقوق بینالملل دانشگاه پیام نور، تهران، ایران

3 استادیار حقوق بین الملل دانشگاه کردستان

چکیده

 
اصل تخصص سازمانهای بینالمللی ایجاب میکند که حقوق و تعهدات هر سازمان، تابعی از
حدود اختیاراتی باشد که اعضا به آن واگذار میکنند. این اصل میتواند نقش مؤثری در تعیین
رژیم حقوقی این دسته از تابعان حقوق بینالملل، ازجمله در بحث مسئولیت بینالمللی آنها ایفا
کند. طرح پیشنویس مسئولیت بینالمللی سازمانهای بینالمللی، مصوب 2011 کمیسیون حقوق
بینالملل، به شیوه خاصی اصل مزبور را لحاظ کرده است که متضمن نوعی برخورد میانه با آن
است. کمیسیون، ضمن پذیرفتن اهمیت اصل تخصص در حقوق سازمانهای بینالمللی، از قبول
آن بهعنوان مبنایی بر تمامی مقررات مربوط به مسئولیت سازمانهای بینالمللی، خودداری کرده اما
سعی در عملیاتیکردن آن (Lex Specialis) به طرق دیگر و عمدتاً با اتکا به قاعده حقوق خاص
است در ماده 64 طرح « ترجیح قانون خاص بر قانون عام » کرده است. این قاعده که متضمن مفهوم
مسئولیت سازمانهای بینالمللی پیشبینی شده و زمینهای برای رعایت شرایط حقوقی خاص هر
سازمان بینالمللی در مواجهه با قواعد عام مسئولیت بینالمللی فراهم کرده است.
این نوشتار با هدف تبیین جایگاه اصل تخصص در مقررات مسئولیت بینالمللی سازمانهای
بینالمللی، رویکرد خاص کمیسیون حقوق بینالملل نسبت به این موضوع را ارزیابی کرده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Rule of Lex Specialis, as a Field for the Operation of Principle of Specialty of International Organization

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyed Mahdi Razavi 1
  • Mojtaba Babaee 2
  • Mahdi Hatami 3
  • Ali Tavakoli Tabasi 2
چکیده [English]

The principle of specialty of international organizations requires that rights
and obligations of each organization is a function of the scope of the powers
entrusted to it by the members. This principle can play an effective role in the
legal regime of this kind of subjects of international Law, including international
responsibility. The draft articles on the responsibility of international
organizations adopted by international law commission in 2011 has taken into
account this principle in the certain manner so that it implies a median
approach. The commission while accepting the importance of this principle in
the law of international organizations, refused to accept it as a basis for the
provisions relating to the responsibility of international organizations, but in
other ways mainly by relying on the rule of Lex specialis has tried to make it
operational. This rule, that involves the superiority of specific law to general
law, has been declared in article 64 of draft articles on the responsibility of
international organizations and considered as a field for observance of specific
legal conditions of international organizations in dealing with the general rules
of international responsibility. This article, with the aim of explaining of the
position of specialty of international organizations in regulations of their
international responsibility, has examined the specific approach of the
international law commission on this issue

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • words: Principle of Specialty
  • International Organizations
  • International Responsibility
  • The Rule of Lex Specialis
 
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