مشروعیت مداخله‌ی نظامی کشور ثالث بر اساس دعوت کشور میزبان: تحلیلی بر مداخلات نظامی در مالی، اوکراین، سوریه و یمن

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه آزاد نجف آباد

2 دانشگاه شهید بهشتی

چکیده

مداخله‌ی نظامی کشور ثالث بر اساس دعوت کشور میزبان یکی از ابزارهایی ا‌ست که در بحران‌های داخلی همواره استفاده می‌شود. حکومتِ تضعیف‌شده‌ای که درگیر بحران یا جنگ داخلی‌ست، برای رهایی از وضع موجود از کشورهای خارجی دعوت به مداخله می‌کند. دو نظریه‌ی مهم برای اعتبار حقوقی چنین دعوتی ارائه شده: کنترل موثر و مشروعیت دموکراتیک. بر اساس معیار سنتی کنترل، برای اعتبارِ دعوتِ نظامیِ کشور میزبان، حکومت باید کنترل موثر سرزمینی داشته باشد؛ امری که در بحران/جنگ داخلی به دشواری محقق می‌شود. از دیگرسو، وفق نظریه‌ی نوظهور مشروعیت دموکراتیک، آنچه که به دعوت مذکور اعتبار می‌بخشد، دموکراتیک و مردمی بودن حکومت است. براین اساس حتی اگر حکومت دموکراتیک، کنترل موثر سرزمینی هم نداشته باشد باز دعوتش مشروع است. در سطحی دیگر، گاه میان مداخله بر اساس دعوت و دفاع مشروع جمعی خلط مفهومی پیش می آید. نوشتار پیش‌رو با بررسی قضایا و پرونده‌های متعدد حقوقی، می‌کوشد مفاهیم مذکور را شفاف‌سازی کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Examining the Legality of Intervention by Invitation: A Critical Approach to Interventions in Mali, Ukraine, Syria and Yemen

نویسندگان [English]

  • Majid Nikouei 1
  • Majid Nikouei 2
1 Islamic Azad University of Najafabad
2 Shahid Beheshti University
چکیده [English]

Intervention by invitation is one of the most controversial practices that often takes place in internal crises. Governments debilitated by internal armed conflicts, resort to inviting their allies in order to reconsolidate their lost power and reassemble their territorial control. The validity of this invitation, however, has been a bone of contention. In this regard, ‘Effective control’ and ‘democratic legitimacy’ are the two established tests for examining such validity. The traditional standard of effective control suggests that the host government shall be able to exercise a minimum degree of control over its territory. On the other hand, the democratic legitimacy criterion, puts an emphasis on the origins of power. This means that, despite the significant losses of territorial control, the invitation of a democratic government must still be considered as valid. Also, in practice intervention upon invitation bears a close proximity to the legal issues associated with ‘collective self-defense’. With a view to these issues, this article critically analyses the practice of international community surrounding the practice of intervention by invitation.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Intervention by invitation
  • effective/de facto control
  • popular/democratic legitimacy
  • collective self-defense
  • use of force

الف) فارسی

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