نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، گروه حقوق دانشگاه مازندران، بابلسر، ایران

2 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد، گروه حقوق بین الملل ، داشنگاه مازندران، بابلسر

چکیده

تغییرات اقلیمی بعنوان بزرگترین بحران عصر حاضر قلمداد می‌شود که تاکنون رویکرد‌های سنتی برای مقابله با آن چندان کارساز نبود‌ه‌اند. از این‌رو در دهه‌های اخیر، ژئومهندسی که شامل دو روش اصلی حذف دی‌اکسیدکربن و مدیریت پرتوهای خورشیدی می‌شود مورد توجه کشورها قرار گرفته است. این فنون همچون سایر فناوری‌های نوظهور در کنار مزایایی که مهمترین آن مقابله با تغییرات اقلیمی است، به دلیل عدم قطعیت علمی می­ توانند آثار زیانباری برای محیط زیست در پی داشته باشند. این نوشتار با هدف توصیف روش‌های ژئومهندسی، معایب و مزایای زیست‌محیطی آنها و رویکرد معاهدات زیست‌محیطی به آنها نگارش یافته است. یافته‌های مقاله نشان می‌دهد هرچند روش­ های ژئومهندسی در معاهدات زیست‌محیطی عمدتا در قالب عبارات ضمنی و ندرتاً به صورت صریح به نظم کشیده شده است اما مقررات و نیز طرز عمل دولت ­های عضو، حکایت از نگرش های متفاوت و بعضاً متعارض نسبت به ژئومهندسی دارد که از تأیید صریح یا ضمنی برخی از روش‌ها بویژه در معاهدات مربوط به مقابله با تغییرات اقلیمی تا مخالفت صریح و ضمنی برخی دیگر همچون کنوانسیون تنوع زیستی، کنوانسیون حفاظت از لایه ازون متغیر است. این پراکندگی تا حدی است که نمی‌توان قائل به یک نظام حقوقی منسجم در این رابطه بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Geoengineering and the Approach of International Environmental Documents Towards It's Regulation

نویسندگان [English]

  • Zahra Mahmoudi Kordi 1
  • Masume Gholami Miansarayi 2

1 Assistant Professor, Department of Law, Faculty of Law and Political Sciences, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran

2 Master Student , University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran

چکیده [English]

Climate change is considered to be the biggest crisis of the present era, and traditional approaches have not been very effective to deal with it yet. Thus, in recent decades, geoengineering which includes two main methods of carbon dioxide removal and solar radiation management has come to the attention of countries. Like other emerging technologies, besides its benefits, most important of which to combat climate change, due to scientific uncertainty, they might have harmful effects on the environment. The present article has aimed to describe geoengineering methods and their environmental pros and cons. The findings of the article show that although the geoengineering methods in international environmental treaties are scattered, mostly in the form of implicit expressions, the rules and the actions of member states indicate the different and sometimes contradictory attitudes toward geoengineering, which varies from explicit or implicit approval of some methods, especially in treaties related to climate change, to explicit and implicit opposition of others, such as the Convention on Biological Diversity, the London Protocol, and the Ozone Conservation Convention. This dispersion is so great that a specific legal system cannot be assumed.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • climate change
  • Geoengineering
  • International Law
  • Environment؛
  • Regulation
  • مقاله‌‌‌‌‌‌‌ها

    • خرسندی، فرهاد، «ویژگی‌های فیزیکی و شیمیایی بیوچار»، منتشر شده در : (1398)

    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/330508068, Available at: Accessed November 2020, DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.35149.08169.

    • قریشی، سید کاظم؛ رحیمی پردنجانی، ایرج و محمد طاهری، «اثرات زیستمحیطی تغییرات اقلیمی»، منتشر شده توسط اولین کنفرانس ملی آلودگیهای محیط زیست با محوریت زمین پاک، اردبیل، انجمن مردم نهاد حیات پاک، (۱۳۹۳)،

    Available at: https://www.civilica.com/Paper-IAUEP01-IAUEP01_056.html.

     

     

    References

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    • Brent, The Role of the No-Harm Rule in Governing Solar Radiation Management Geoengineering, PhD Thesis. University of Tasmania, (2016).

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    • The Convention on Biological Diversity, (1992).
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    Report

    • Bracmort, Kelsi, Lattanzio, Richard K. Barbour Emily C, “Geoengineering: Governance and Technology Policy”, Congressional Research Service Report R41371, (2010).
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