حقوق سرمایهگذاری بینالمللی با بحران مشروعیت مواجه است. بر این اساس تحرکات جدی در عرصههای ساختاری و رویهای در جهت مواجهه و غلبه بر این بحران مطرح است. نخستین گام در فرایند غلبه بر این بحران، شناسایی عوامل آن است. فقدان تعادل پویا میان منافع عمومی و خصوصی یکی از عوامل اصلی ایجاد بحران مشروعیت در این نظام حقوقی است. این نوشتار با تمرکز بر تحرکات رویه داوری سرمایهگذاری در ایجاد تعادل مزبور، تبیین یکی از مواضع همگرایی حقوق تجارت و سرمایهگذاری بینالمللی را در دستور کار قرار میدهد. اساس چنین ادعایی بر تحولات حقوق تجارت بینالملل در مواجه با بحران مشروعیتِ مشابه و رویکرد ساختاری – رویهای این نظام حقوقی در ایجاد تعادل میان منافع عمومی و خصوصی بعنوان راهکاری اساسی در غلبه بر بحران مبتنی است. از این منظر غلبه پارادیم ترجیح منافع خصوصی در هر دو نظام حقوقی یکی از عوامل اصلی در ایجاد بحران مشروعیت بوده و جایگزینی آن از طریق پذیرش پارادایم ایجاد تعادل پویا میان اهداف رقیب، یکی از مواضع همگرایی حقوق تجارت و سرمایهگذاری بینالمللی است. در این نوشتار این تعامل همگرا در رویه داوری بررسی میشود.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Addressing the Legitimacy Crisis of Investment Arbitration Through its Harmonization with World Trade Organization Law
International investment law is facing a legitimacy crisis, in which to tackle, substantial efforts are being made in structural and procedural areas. The first step to overcoming this crisis is identifying the roots of it. The lack of a dynamic balance between public and private interests is one of the main factors creating this legitimacy crisis in this legal system. This paper focuses on the changes in the investment arbitration jurisprudence to create this balance. The findings of this paper can explain one of the convergence points of international trade and investment law. Such a claim is based on the evolution of international trade law in facing a similar legitimacy issue and the structural-procedural approach of this legal system in balancing public and private interests as an ultimate solution to the crisis. From this perspective, one of the major factors in creating a legitimacy crisis in both legal systems is the dominance of the paradigm for preference of private interests; and one of the convergence points of international trade and investment law has been to replace it by accepting the paradigm of creating a dynamic balance between competing goals. This paper examines this convergence in arbitral jurisprudence.
In recent years, the legitimacy crisis of the regime of international investment law and, as a result, the investor-state dispute settlement system has been one of the most important and controversial topics in the academic environment and the practice of states consequently, serious efforts in various fields to tackle this crisis have begun. According to this paper, choosing an arbitration mechanism modeled on international commercial arbitration to resolve disputes between host states and foreign investors can be evaluated as a wrong and hasty action that, regardless of its factors and contexts, has changed the nature and function of this system over time. It should be noted that the main factor in such consequences is how this dispute resolution system is used which, contrary to the accepted model, always puts the host states in a "respondent" position in possible future disputes and, as a result, disrupts the balance expected in any international dispute settlement system. On this basis, the confrontation of the host state's sovereign competence in ensuring public interests with the foreign investors’ ability to challenge this competence is brought into the spotlight: currently, within the regime of international investment law, host states have only responsibilities and obligations in contrast to extensive and exclusive rights and privileges recognized for foreign investors, and this can be considered as the most important factor disturbing the said balance. The main issue in this field is to analyze the role of the investment arbitral tribunals in creating such a balance. In this regard, the authors, by focusing on the nature of investment treaties, and the relations between the parties in investment disputes and with emphasis on the general legal regime governing international investment, consider creating a dynamic balance between public and private interests to be the key to solving the crisis. They emphasize that; As long as the rights and obligations of the parties to the dispute are based on imbalanced grounds, the change in nature of the disputes and the function of the system -as the main roots of this legitimacy crisis - will remain. In this remark, it is very important to focus on the two-sided nature (public-private) of the relationships established in the framework of investment treaties. The relationship between the host state and the foreign investor is created within the framework of investment treaties and in light of fundamental differences from purely private relationships in international commercial arbitration. Note that any dispute arising from this relationship is affected by its inherently public nature governed by public international law. Thus, a purely private attitude towards these relations does not seem viable. As Ian Brownlie has stated in the case of SME v. the Czech Republic, it can lead to ignoring some of the basic elements of the relevant investment treaty. In other words, the right and duty of the host state in protecting and promoting public interests is a fundamental part of this relationship, and any indulgence of it leads to a serious disruption of the mentioned balance through which the system's legitimacy will be the first victim.
It is clear that the main task of any dispute resolution system is to create such a balance, and on this basis, and compared to the WTO dispute resolution system, the role of the investment tribunals in this process is discussed. This jurisprudential convergence is in line with the goal of strengthening the legitimacy of the international investment law system as a whole.
Based on the above, the first part of this paper focuses on the process of establishing the ISDS in international investment law and its characteristics, the factors of the crisis of legitimacy are analyzed with an analytical approach, while also explaining the nature of investment treaties and explaining the general legal regime governing international investment. Furthermore, the lack of a dynamic balance between public and private interests is emphasized as the main cause of the crisis. In the second part, while comparing the two legal systems of international trade and investment with a similar crisis of legitimacy, we will examine the interaction of investment arbitration with the WTO's jurisprudence in facing this crisis through a case study of several investment arbitral awards.
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