نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه حقوق دانشگاه مازندران

2 دانشگاه مازندران

چکیده

با توجه به تبعات و آثار گسترده آسیب­های زیست‌محیطی فرامرزی، امروزه دولت­ها برای مقابله با آنها از رویکرد سنتی که ماهیتی جبرانی داشت فاصله گرفته و به رویکرد پیشگیری تمایل بیشتری نشان می‌دهند. تجربه و یافته‌های علمی نشان می‌دهد که پیشگیری از آسیب‌های زیست‌محیطی علاوه بر فواید آن برای محیط زیست به لحاظ اقتصادی نیز مقرون به صرفه بوده و از این‌رو به قاعده طلایی و برج مراقبت حقوق بین­الملل محیط زیست معروف است. این مقاله با استفاده از روش کتابخانهای و بهرهگیری از اسناد و رویه قضایی بینالمللی، فن ترکیبی توصیف، تبیین و فهم را به کار گرفته و در پی شناساندن اجزای شاکله تعهد دولت‌ها به پیشگیری از آسیب‌های فرامرزی است. دستاورد مقاله این است که اولاُ تعهد به پیشگیری، تعهدی دو جزیی است که از دو عنصر ماهوی (تلاش مقتضی) و شکلی (همکاری) تشکیل شده است و هر یک از این عناصر نیز اجزایی دارند که وجودشان برای احراز مسئولیت دولت منشا ضروری است، ثانیاً با توجه به گستره آثار منفی آسیب‌های فرامرزی، عناصر ماهوی و شکلی مکمل هم بوده و احراز هر دو عنصر برای ایفای تعهد به پیشگیری ضروری است.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Analysis of the Elements of Obligation to Prevent Trans boundary Environmental Harm

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ramin Yarmohammadi 1
  • Zahra Mahmoudi Kordi 2

1 ۤFaculty of Law Mazandaran University

2 University of Mazandarn

چکیده [English]

Due to the advancement of industry and increasing economic activities, environmental interferences have been raised, which has led to the emergence of transboundary harm. Given the widespread effects of transboundary harm, governments have departed from a traditional compensation-based approach to a preventive approach. Experiences and scientific findings show that in addition to its environmental benefits, the preventive approach is economical and therefore is known as the Golden Rule and the Environmental Watch Tower. This article seeks to identify the main elements of the states’ obligation to prevent transboundary harm, using international instruments and precedents. It is concluded that firstly, the obligation to prevent includes two elements: substantial (or due diligence) and procedural (or cooperation), each of which has their structures or components whose existence is essential in identification of the responsibility of the state of origin. Secondly, considering the extent and the negative effects of transboundary harm, the two elements are intrinsic and inseparable, both necessary to fulfill the state’s commitment to prevention.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Trans boundary Environmental Harm
  • Obligation to prevent
  • Due diligence
  • cooperation
  • the state of origin
الف- فارسی
-           مرادی، حسن، حقوق محیط­زیست بین­الملل، جلد اول، چاپ اول (تهران: نشر میزان، 1392).
 
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