نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 ، دانشجوی دکتری حقوق بین‌الملل عمومی، گروه حقوق عمومی و بین الملل، دانشکده حقوق، الهیات و علوم سیاسی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، دانشگاه

2 دانشیار گروه حقوق بین الملل دانشگاه شهید بهشتی،تهران، ایران

چکیده

قابلیت انتساب عمل به دولت در چارچوب اختلافات معاهده‌ سرمایه‌گذاری و تمرکز بر نقش‌هایی که حقوق بین‌الملل و حقوق داخلی در چنین انتسابی ایفا ‌می‌نمایند در زمره‌ مباحثی است که در سال‌های اخیر بسیار مورد ‌توجه حقوقدانان بوده و ماده 3 مواد کمیسیون حقوق بین‌الملل در ارتباط با مسئولیت دولت‌ها نیز بیانگر پیامد اصلی این بحث است که فی‌الواقع، حقوق داخلی را با مسأله متخلفانه بودن اعمال از حیث بین‌المللی بی‌ارتباط تلقی ‌ننموده، بلکه مقرر ‌می‌دارد مسئله مورد بحث، تابع حقوق بین‌الملل است لیکن حقوق بین‌الملل نیز خود تا حدِ ارتباط، حقوق داخلی را در نظر خواهد گرفت.  بنابراین اگرچه توصیف خصوصیات یک عمل به عنوان عملی غیرقانونی از عملکردهای مستقل حقوق بین‌الملل است که تحت ‌تأثیر توصیف خصوصیات این عمل بموجب حقوق داخلی قرار نمی‌گیرد لیکن این گفته بدین معنی نیست که حقوق داخلی با توصیف عمل متخلفانه‌ بین‌المللی بی‌ارتباط ‌است؛ بالعکس، ممکن ‌است به طرق مختلفی به آن مرتبط‌ باشد. در این مقاله سعی بر‌ آن است که تلاقی چالش‌برانگیز حقوق داخلی و حقوق بین‌الملل در بحث قابلیت انتساب اعمال ‌صورت ‌گرفته در چارچوب معاهدات سرمایه‌گذاری توسط ارگان‌های دولتی و نهادهای نیمه‌دولتی که عناصر اختیارات دولتی را اعمال می‌نمایند مورد واکاوی قرار‌ گیرد.



کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

The Relationship between International and Domestic Law in the Field of Attribution of Responsibility to a State in International Investment Disputes

نویسندگان [English]

  • Elham Amidimehr 1
  • Jamal Seifi 2

1 Ph.D. Student in public International Law, Faculty of Divinity, Political Science and Law, Science and Research Branch Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

2 Associate Professor, Public International Law, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

The attributability of actions to states within the context of investment treaty disputes and to focus on the roles played by international and domestic laws in such attributions have caught the attention of jurists in recent years. The ILC Draft Articles on Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful Acts, and particularly, article 3 points to the main outcome of this debate, where it does not consider domestic law irrelevant in internationally wrongful acts and stipulates that the issue is subject to international law and it will take into account the relevance of domestic law. Thus, although the characterization of an act of a State as internationally wrongful is an independent function of international law and such characterization is not affected by the characterization of the same act as lawful by domestic law, it does not mean that domestic law is irrelevant to such description; on the contrary, it may be related in various ways. The present article attempts to examine the challenging junction of domestic and international law with regard to the attributability of actions taken within the framework of investment treaties, specifically by state-owned and para-statal entities that exercise elements of state authority.




کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Keywords: Attribution
  • International Law
  • Domestic Law
  • International arbitration
  • International Investment Treaties
Books
-          Cohen Smutny, Abby, StateResponsibility and Attribution: When Is a State Responsible for theActs of State Enterprises? Emilio Agustìn Maffezini v. The Kingdomof Spain’, in International Investment Law and Arbitration: LeadingCases from the ICSID, NAFTA, Bilateral Treaties and CustomaryInternational Law (London: ed. T. Weiler, 2005).
 -          Crawford, James, The International Law Commission's Articles on State Responsibility (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002).
 -          Dolzer, Rudolf and Christoph Schreuer, Principles of International Investment Law (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012).
 -          Douglas, Zachary, The International Law of Investment Claims (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009).
 -          Shaw, Malcolm N., International Law (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008).
 
Articles
-          Crawford, James, “Investment Arbitration and the ILC Articles on State Responsibility”, ICSID Review - Foreign Investment Law, Vol. 25, (2010[a1] ).
 
-          Paparinskis, Martins, “Investment Treaty Arbitration and the (New) Law of State Responsibility”, The European Journal of International Law, Vol. 24, (2013).
 
Documents
-          Commentaries on Art. 2(b)(i) of the ILC's Articles on Jurisdictional Immunities of States and their‌Property,14-15, available on the ILC website:<http:// untreaty. un. org/ ilc/ texts/ instruments/ english/ commentaries/ 4_1_1991.pdf>.
 -          Commentaries on Draft Art. 2(b)(iv) of the International Law Commission Draft Articles on Jurisdictional Immunities of States.
-          Difference Relating to Immunity from Legal Process of a Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human Rights, ICJ Reports, Advisory Opinions and Orders (1999).
 -          ILC's 2553rd meeting of 31 Jul. 1998, the summary of which is recorded in the ILC Yearbook 1998.
 -          ILC's 2562nd meeting of 13 Aug. 1998, the summary of which is recorded in the ILC Yearbook 1998.
 -          ILC's 2681st meeting of 29 May 2001, the summary of which is recorded in the ILC Yearbook 2001.
 -          LC Draft Art. 2(b)(iii) is almost identical to Art. 2(b)(iii) of the United Nations Conventions on Jurisdictional Immunities of States and their Properties.
 -          Report of the International Law Commission on the work of its Fiftieth Session, 20 Apr.–12 Jun. and 27 Jul.–14 Aug. 1998, A/53/10, ILC Yearbook 1998.
  
Cases
-          Asian Agricultural Products Ltd (AAPL) v. The Republic of Sri Lanka, ICSID Case No. ARB/87/3, 1990.
 -          Bosnia and Herzegovina v. Serbia and Montenegro, Judgment of 26 Feb. 2007, available on the ICJ website at: www.icjcij.org/docket/files/91/13685.pdf>.
 -          Encana Corporation v. Ecuador, ICSID Award, 3 Feb. 2006.
 -          Encana Corporation v. Republic of Ecuadori, Partial Award on Jurisdiction, 27 Feb. 2004, Award, 3 Feb. 2006, ICSID Reports 12 ,2007.
 -          Genin v. Estonia, Award, 25 Jun. 2001, ICSID Reports 6, 2003.
 -          Metalclad Corporation v. United Mexican States, Award of 30 Aug. 2000, ICSID Reports, 5 (2002).
 -          Mr. Kristian Almås and Mr. Geir Almås v. The Republic of Poland, ICSID Award, 27 June 2016.
 -          Noble Ventures v. Romania, ICSID Award, 12 Oct. 2005, ICSID Case No: ARB/01/11 available on the Investment Treaty Arbitration website:
<http://ita.law.uvic.ca/documents/Noble.pdf>.