توسل به هوش مصنوعی، زندگی بشری را تحت تأثیر خود قرار داده است. متخصصین این حوزه همواره از نقشِ مؤثر هوش مصنوعی در راستای تأمین رفاه بشریت صحبت میکنند. مقابله با بحرانهای زیستمحیطی از جمله مواردی است که با عنوان مزایای ناشی از هوش مصنوعی مطرح شده است. اما از سوی دیگر، فعالانِ زیستمحیطی معتقدند با توجه به سود سرشار مالیِ حاصل از هوش مصنوعی، منافع تجاری نسبت به چالشهای زیستمحیطی در اولویت قرار گرفتهاند. وجود نگرانیهایی از این دست، یونسکو را برآن داشت تا با هدف نظاممند نمودن فعالیتهای مرتبط با هوش مصنوعی در بخشهای مختلف از جمله محیط زیست، پیشنویس توصیههای یونسکو در اخلاق هوش مصنوعی را ارائه دهد. اما با مطالعه پیشنویس این پرسش مطرح میشود که آیا پیشنویس توانسته است بخوبی ابعاد مختلف چالشهای زیستمحیطیِ ناشی از توسل به هوش مصنوعی را مد نظر قرار دهد؟ این مقاله با شیوه تحلیلیـ توصیفی به دنبال یافتن پاسخی برای این پرسش است.
عنوان مقاله [English]
An In-depth Analysis of the Initial Draft of the Recommendation on the Ethics of Artificial Intelligence: Exploring the Right to Environment
Artificial intelligence is the science of empowering machines to perform actions similar to human activities. In other words, artificial intelligence is considered a science and a set of computer technologies designed to think, reason and imitate human behavior.
Artificial intelligence is considered a new technology that has influenced various aspects of human life, from the economy to health and employment.
Activists in the field of artificial intelligence always talk about the capabilities of this technology. According to them, the development and expansion of artificial intelligence is a great tool to deal with human problems and dilemmas. For example, the increase in temperature, decrease in biodiversity, deforestation, floods, droughts, air pollution, and garbage accumulation are all among the environmental problems that have plagued humanity, problems that require immediate and effective solutions. For this purpose, resorting to artificial intelligence and its capabilities in environmental care has been proposed as one of the scientific and technical solutions to deal with these environmental challenges.
The capabilities of artificial intelligence in agricultural management, measuring the amount of greenhouse gases, managing and monitoring the optimization of energy consumption, recycling waste, and strengthening and optimizing the public transportation system are all among the potential capabilities of artificial intelligence in the protection of the environment.
But on the other hand, the process of designing, producing, supplying, and resorting to artificial intelligence has been associated with various challenges such as high energy consumption, extensive use of rare metals, and destruction of mineral resources, as well as increasing waste production and environmental pollution. These problems have caused serious doubts about the capabilities of this technology considering the growing trend to resort to artificial intelligence. This has led to environmental activists raising the question of whether this technology will provide a toolbox for a sustainable future for humans.
Concerns regarding the performance of artificial intelligence and the widespread global support for this technology on the other hand prompted the world community to respond to these doubts, by regularizing the processes of research, development, production, and supply of artificial intelligence.
One of these attempts is preparing the First Draft of the Recommendation on the Ethics of Artificial Intelligence in September 2020 By the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).
This draft, which was prepared in the form of 8 sections with the efforts of UNESCO international experts, with the aim of creating an international framework in the field of ethical and legal issues related to artificial intelligence systems, is approved at the 41st annual meeting of UNESCO, which was held in November 2021, with the votes of 193 member countries of this organization as the first international document that specifically considers the ethical norms and human rights of artificial intelligence..
This document will not be binding but it is significant because it will be the first international document that specifically considers the ethical norms and human rights of artificial intelligence.
The drafters of this recommendation talked about four human values which the 1st is respecting, encouraging and ensuring the basic principles of human rights, the second is , protecting the environment, the third is protecting biodiversity and the fourth, is living in peace and reconciliation.
This draft demanded all the activists in the field of artificial intelligence to participate in the activities and adhere to principles such as proportionality, safety, fairness, responsibility, and accountability.
But when looking at the draft text it seems that in some cases it contains ambiguities and defects, especially environmental discussions.
These defects lead to several questions such as: “Has UNESCO's ethical draft been able to address the challenges in the environment sector, to provide effective regulations and solutions?” and “Considering the important and ever-increasing role of private companies active in the production and supply of artificial intelligence systems, have the authors of the draft been able to act successfully regarding attributing responsibility, methods of compensation for environmental damages, and commitment to observe the precautionary principle?” This article aims at working on these subjects, questions, and ambiguities with an analytical-descriptive method.