قراردادهای سرمایه گذاری خارجی و قلمرو تعهدات عهدنامه ای دولت میزبان

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 مدرس/دانشگاه هنر شیراز

2 استادیار/دانشکده حقوق دانشگاه امام صادق

چکیده

سرمایه‌گذاری خارجی از طریق انعقاد یک قرارداد میان سرمایه‌گذار خارجی و یک نهاد یا مؤسسه دولتی سرزمین میزبان آغاز بکار می‌کند.دولت میزبان سرمایه نیز عموماً طرف یک عهدنامه دو یا چندجانبه بین‌المللی با دولت متبوع سرمایه‌گذار است. هریک از اسناد مذکور جهت حل وفصل اختلافات سرمایه‌گذار-دولت مکانیزم خاصی پیش‌بینی می-نمایند. در موارد متعددی همین قراردادهای سرمایه‌گذاری پایه واساس اختلافات سرمایه‌گذاری است وبسیاری از دعاوی متضمن تخلف از تعهدات حقوقی بین المللی ناشی از یا مرتبط با قراردادهای مذکور است که مسأله جدیدی در حوزه داوری بین‌المللی محسوب می‌گردد.
پیرو آرائی که در دو پرونده SGS علیه پاکستان و SGS علیه فیلیپین ازسوی دیوان داوری بین المللی صادر گردید، اخیراً این مسأله که محاکم عهدنامه‌ای چگونه بایستی بادعاوی ناشی ازروابط قراردادی طرفین ارتباط برقرار کنند، مورد توجه قرار گرفته است. هردو دیوان مزبور با موضوع احراز صلاحیت درخصوص دعاوی نقض قرارداد مواجه بودند؛اگرچه نهایتاً داوری‌ها به صدور دورأی متفاوت انجامید،راهنمای خوبی بمنظور شناسایی محدوده صلاحیتی مراجع داوری در رسیدگی به اختلافات ناشی ازقرارداد سرمایه‌گذاری است.دیوان‌های بعدی با عنایت به رویه داوری موجود، جهت استقرار یک رویکرد تحلیلی روشن‌تر درخصوص احراز صلاحیت رسیدگی به اختلافات ناشی از روابط قراردادی برآمدند

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Foreign Investment Contracts and Scope of Host State Commitments Arising From Treaty

نویسندگان [English]

  • afife gholami 1
  • tavakol habibzadeh 2
1 teacher/shiraz art university
2 Assistant Professor/ Emam Sadeq University
چکیده [English]

Foreign investment are made by means of concluding a contract between the foreign investor and a public institute or entity of the host state.On the other side, the host state is often a part of a bilateral or multilateral investment treaty with the national state of the investor.Each of these documents forecast their special mechanism for settlement of investor-state disputes.In numerous cases,these contracts are sources of investment disputes and a lot of claims arise out of breaches of international legal obligations arising from or relating to underlying contracts, which is a new question in the international arbitration domain.Since the two SGS v.Pakistan and SGS v.Philippines decisions by arbitral tribunals, the question of how treaty-based tribunals should deal with claims arising out of the contractual relationships,was recently asked and considered. Both of the aforementioned tribunals dealt with assessing jurisdiction over claims of breach of contract.Although, these arbitrations finally resulted in two different awards, they has provided useful guidance toward determination of the scope of jurisdiction of the arbitral tribunals over disputes arising out of the investment contracts.The subsequent tribunals taking into account arbitral practices, tried to present an analytical approaches concerning assessment of jurisdiction in settlement of disputes arisingfrom contractual relationships

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • investment dispute settlement
  • Jurisdiction
  • investment contract
  • treaty obligations
  • arbitral practice
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