چالش‌های اجرایی نظریه مسئولیت حمایت با نگاهی به وضعیت لیبی و سوریه

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد و عضو هیأت علمی دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی دانشگاه تهران

2 دانشجوی دکتری حقوق بین‌الملل دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

طرح نظریه مسئولیت حمایت در سال 2001، پاسخی به ضعف نظام بین‌المللی در واکنش مناسب به ارتکاب نقض‌‌های عمده حقوق بشر در سرزمین‌هایی چون رواندا، بوسنی و کوزوو بود. این نظریه در تلاش برای بازتعریف مفهوم حاکمیت ملی و کارکرد دولت­ها در قالب «حاکمیت به مثابه مسئولیت» و طرح یک چارچوب مفهومی جدید برای واکنش به موقع و قاطع به اعمال خشونت‌بار، به سرعت توانست در مباحث بین‌المللی جایگاه خاصی یابد. اما به تدریج و همزمان با وقوع  بحران‌های جدید انسانی بویژه آنچه که در لیبی و سوریه رخ داد، آشکار شد که این نظریه علاوه بر ابهامات و پیچیدگی‌های مفهومی، در مرحله اجرا نیز با چالش‌های فراوانی روبه‌رو است که ابهام در اجماع کشورها نسبت به تبدیل این نظریه به یک قاعده بین‌المللی، اختلاف نسبت به دامنه مصادیق تحت شمول و توجیه مداخله در کشورهای تحت پوشش مسئولیت حمایت مهمترین آنها محسوب می‌شوند. در این نوشتار ضمن بررسی ابعاد استناد به نظریه مسئولیت حمایت در لیبی و سوریه، چالش‌های مذکور تبیین و در پایان استدلال می‌شود که نظر به ضعف‌های این نظریه در حوزه‌های نظری و عملی، ترسیم یک چشم‌انداز روشن برای موفقیت آن در آینده دشوار خواهد بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The operational challenges of the Responsibility to Protect Theory (with a focus on the situation in Libya and Syria)

نویسندگان [English]

  • seyyed bagher mirabbassi 1
  • aghil mohammadi 2
چکیده [English]

The responsibility to protect doctrine (R2P) was developed in 2001 in response to the failing of the international system to major violations of human rights in territories, such as Rwanda, Bosnia and Kosovo. The R2P, which is trying to redefine the concept of national sovereignty and function of governments in the form of "sovereignty as responsibility" and makes a new conceptual framework for responding to violent behaviors, could rapidly find special place in the international debates. But, gradually and simultaneously with the occurrence of new humanity disasters, especially what happened in Libya and Syria, it became clear that in spite of having conceptual Ambiguities and complexities, is also faced with many operational challenges that The ambiguity of consensus of countries to convert this idea into an international rule, the disagreements over the examples in which the R2P can be used and justification of state for intervention by the R2P, are the most important ones. This article studies aspects of application of the R2P in Libya and Syria and aforementioned challenges. At the end, it induces that regarding to the R2P theoretical and practical weaknesses, imagination of a bright outlook for its success in the future is difficult.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • مسئولیت حمایت
  • امنیت انسانی
  • لیبی
  • سوریه
  • حقوق بشر
الف- فارسی
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