چالش‌های دیوان کیفری بین‌المللی در پیگیری پرونده رئیس‌جمهور سودان: از مخالفت اتحادیه آفریقا تا عدم همکاری کشورهای عضو اتحادیه با دیوان کیفری

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

هیات علمی

چکیده

پس از عدم موفقیت شورای صلح و امنیت اتحادیه آفریقا در تعلیق پرونده عمرالبشیر از سوی شورای امنیت، دیوان کیفری بین­المللی دومین حکم جلب عمرالبشیر را صادر می­کند. دیوان کیفری بین­المللی به موجب این حکم از دولت­های عضو اساسنامه رُم درخواست می‌کند که در دستگیری و تحویل عمرالبشیر با دیوان کیفری بین­المللی همکاری کنند. اتحادیه آفریقا در این شرایط به تلافی شکست در متوقف ساختن حکم دستگیری عمرالبشیر تصمیم می­گیرد؛ حداقل از دولت­های عضو بخواهد که در دستگیری و تحویل عمرالبشیر با دیوان کیفری بین‌المللی همکاری نکنند. این وضعیت باعث می­شود که عمرالبشیر بدون هراس از حکم دستگیری به کشورهای عضو اساسنامه از جمله؛ چاد، کنیا و ... مسافرت کند. از این رو موضع­گیری دولت­­های میزبان بر اولویت حفظ صلح و ثبات سودان و همین­طور الزام به تبعیت از دستورات اتحادیه آفریقا به لحاظ عضویت در آن اتحادیه، باعث  شد تا دیوان کیفری بین­المللی از تمام ظرفیت­های موجود در اساسنامه برای مقابله با این وضعیت و اعمال صلاحیت خود در دستگیری عمرالبشیر استفاده کند و موضوع را به مجمع دولت­های عضو دیوان و شورای امنیت سازمان ملل گزارش دهد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Challenges of the International Criminal Court to follow up Sudanese President Case: African Union opposed to non-cooperation of its member states with the Criminal Court

چکیده [English]

Abstract
Following the failure of the African Union Peace and Security Council to suspend Bashir's case by the Security Council, the International Criminal Court issued a second arrest warrant for Bashir. International Criminal Court pursuant to the decree of States Parties of the Rome Statute to arrest and hand over Bashir's request that cooperate with the International Criminal Court. African Union on the situation in retaliation for the failure to stop the arrest warrant for Bashir decides At least ask member states to arrest and hand over Bashir not cooperate with the International Criminal Court. This situation makes that Bashir without fear of arrest, the States Parties to the Statute including Chad, Kenya and travel. Position on the priorities of host governments to maintain peace and stability in Sudan and the obligation to comply with the orders of the African Union in terms of membership in the Union, makes the Statute of the International Criminal Court in the capacity to deal with the situation and exercise its jurisdiction to arrest Bashir use And subject to the Assembly of States Parties to the ICC and the UN Security Council report.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • International
  • criminal court
  • the Security Council
  • the African Union
  • Omar al-Bashir
کتاب‌ها
-           شریعت­باقری، محمدجواد، (1390)، اسناد دیوان کیفری بین­المللی، چ2، تهران، انتشارات جنگل.
-           محمدنسل، غلامرضا، (1391)، مجموعه مقررات دیوان بین­المللی کیفری، چ2، تهران، انتشارات دادگستر.
 
مقاله‌ها
-           رمضانی قوام­آبادی، محمدحسین، منصور بهمئی، (1396)، «تحقق عدالت کیفری در آفریقا؛ موانع و راهکارها»، فصلنامه مطالعات حقوق عمومی، دوره 47، شماره 1.
-           زمانی، قاسم، (1393) «تهدید به عدم همکاری با دیوان کیفری بین­المللی و آینده مبهم عدالت کیفری در قاره سیاه»، پژوهش­های حقوق جزا و جرم­شناسی، شماره 2.
-           صالحی، جواد، (1392)، «قطعنامه 1593 شورای امنیت در الزام دولت­ها به همکاری یا دیوان کیفری بین­المللی»،  فصلنامه مطالعات بین­المللی پلیس، شماره 16.
-           صالحی، جواد، (1394)، «مصونیت نداشتن ریس جمهوری سودان در برابر دیوان کیفری بین المللی»، فصلنامه اطلاعات سیاسی-  اقتصادی، شماره 302.
-           مولایی، حمید، جواد صالحی (1395)، «مصونیت رئیس دولت در چارچوب الزامات اساسنامه دیوان کیفری بین المللی، قطعنامه شورای امنیت و عرف بین المللی»، فصلنامه مطالعات بین­المللی پلیس، شماره 25.
Books
-            Gardner, R, (2008), Treaty Interpretation, Oxford: OUP.
 
-            Schabas, W, (2010), the International Criminal Court: A Commentary on the Rome Statute, OUP.
 
Articles
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-            Akande, D, (2009), “The Legal Nature of Security Council Referrals to the ICC and its Impact on Al Bashir’s Immunities”, Journal of International Criminal Justice, No. 7.
 
-            Barnes, P. G, (2011), “the International Criminal Court’s Ineffective Enforcement Mechanisms: The Indictment of President Omar Al-Bashir”, Fordham International Law Journal, No. 34(6).
 
-            Barigaba, J, (2010), “We’ll Get Bashir, Kony Soon, Says International Criminal Court”, E. AFR. (Nairobi), Available at: http://www.theeastafrican.co.ke/ news/-/2558/937546/-/pdvbwoz/-/index.html.
 
-            Borger, J, (2010), “Court Censures Commonwealth Chief as Rift Deepens over War Crimes Suspects: Sharma ‘Questions Duty’ of States to Hand Over to ICC: Row Began over Kenya Refusal to Arrest Bashir”, Guardian, London.
 
-            Clarke, J, (2010), “Chad Urged to Arrest Sudan’s President”, Irish Times.
 
-            Hamilton, R, (2010), “Omar Al-Bashir, Fresh Off Press Crackdown in Sudan, Defies ICC in Visit to Chad”, ChristianScience Monitor.
 
-            Maweni, R, (2011), “Sudan’s President Omar Hassan Al-Bashir Indicted by the ICC; what’s Next”, Citizens for Global Solutions, Available at: http:// archive2.globalsolutions.org/issues/sudans-president-omar-hassan-al-bashir.
  
-            Nairobi, X. R, (2010), “Bashir Mars Landmark Day for Kenya”, Guardian, London.
 
-            Soares, C, (2010), “Sudan’s Leader Defies Genocide Warrant with Trip to Old Enemy Chad”, Independent, London.
 
-            Ssenyonjo, M, (2013), “the Rise of the African Union Opposition to the International Criminal Court’s Investigations and Prosecutions of African Leaders”, International Criminal Law Review, No. 13.
 
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  Decisions, Reports and Declarations
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-            African Union, “Assembly Decision on the Meeting of States Parties to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court”, Assembly/AU/Dec.245 (XIII), 3 July 2009.
 
-            African Union, “Assembly Decision on the Progress Report of the Commission on the Implementation of Decision Assembly/AU/Dec.270 (XIV) on the Second Ministerial Meeting on the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court”, Doc. Assembly/AU/10 (XV), Assembly/AU/Dec.296 (XV), 27 July 2010.
 
-            African Union, “Assembly Decision on the Implementation of the Decisions on the International Criminal Court”, Doc. EX.CL/639 (XVIII), Assembly/AU/Dec.334 (XVI), 30-31 Jan 2011.
 
-            African Union, “Assembly Decision on the Implementation of the Assembly Decisions on the International Criminal Court”, Doc. EX.CL/670 (XIX), Assembly/AU/Dec.366 (XVII), 30 June-1 July 2011.
 
-            African Union, “Assembly Decision on the Progress Report of the Commission on the Implementation of the Assembly Decisions on the International Criminal Court”, Doc. EX.CL/710 (XX), Assembly/AU/Dec.397 (XVIII), 29–30 Jan 2012.
 
-            Africa Union, “Assembly Decision on the Meeting of African States Parties to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court”, Doc. Assembly/AU/I3 (XIII), 8 July 2009.
 
-            African Union, “Peace and Security Council”, Doc. Communiqué PSC/Min/Comm (CXLII), 21 July 2008.
 
-            African Union, “Reaction on the Decision of the Pre-Trial Chamber of the ICC Informing the UN Security Council and the Assembly of the State Parties to the Rome Statute about the Presence of President Al-Bashir of the Sudan in the Territories of the Republic of Chad and the Republic of Kenya”, 29 Aug 2010.
 
-            BBC News, (2008), “Vow to Pursue Sudan over ‘Crimes”, Available at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/7639046.stm.
 
-            International Criminal Court, “Kampala Declaration”, Declaration RC/Decl.1, 1 June 2010.
 
-            International Criminal Court, “Kampala Declaration”, Declaration RC/Decl.2., 8 June 2010.
 
-            International Criminal Court, “Resolution on Cooperation”, ICC-ASP/10/Res.2, 20 Dec 2011.
 
-            International Criminal Court, Resolution on the Strengthening of the International Criminal Court and the Assembly of States Parties”, ICC-ASP/10/Res.5, 21 Dec 2011.
 
-            Prosecutor V. Al-Bashir, “Decision on the Prosecution’s Application for a Warrant of Arrest against Al-Bashir”, Case No. ICC-02/05-01/09, 4 Mar 2009.
 
-            Prosecutor V. Al-Bashir, “Second Warrant of Arrest for Al-Bashir”, Case No. ICC-02/05-01/09, 12 July 2010.
 
-            Prosecutor V. Al-Bashir, “Supplementary Request to All States Parties to the Rome Statute for the Arrest and Surrender of Al-Bashir”, Case No. ICC-02/05-01/09, 21 July, 2010.
 
-            Prosecutor V. Al-Bashir, “Supplementary Request for the Arrest and Surrender of Al-Bashir to States that were United Nations Security Council Members on 4 March 2009 and are not States Parties to the Rome Statute”, Case No. ICC-02/05-01/09, 21 July 2010. 
-            Prosecutor V. Al-Bashir, “Supplementary Request to the Republic of the Sudan for the Arrest and Surrender of Al-Bashir”, Case No. ICC-02/05-01/09, 21 July, 2010.
 
-            Prosecutor V. Al-Bashir, “Request to All States Parties to the Rome Statute for the Arrest and Surrender of Al-Bashir, Situation in Darfur”, Case No. ICC-02/05-01/09-7, 6 Mar 2009.
 
-            Prosecutor V. Al-Bashir, “Supplementary Request to All States Parties to the Rome Statute for the Arrest and Surrender of Al-Bashir”, Case No. ICC-02/05-01/09-96, 12 July 2010.
 
-            Prosecutor v. Al-Bashir, “Decision Informing the United Nations Security Council and the Assembly of the States Parties to the Rome Statute about President Al-Bashir's Recent Visit to the Republic of Chad”, Case No. ICC-02/05-01/09, 27 Aug 2010.
 
-            Prosecutor V. Al-Bashir, “Prosecution Notification of Possible Travel to a State Party in the Case of The Prosecutor v. Omar Al-Bashir”, Case No. ICC-02/05-01/09, 22 Oct 2010.
 
-            Prosecutor V. Al-Bashir, “Transmission of the Reply from the Republic of Kenya”, Case No. ICC-02/05-01/09, 29 Oct 2010.   
 
-            Prosecutor V. Al-Bashir, “Decisions Informing the United Nations Security Council and the Assembly of the States Parties to the Rome Statute about Al-Bashir’s Recent Visit to: the Republic of Kenya”, Case No. ICC-02/05-01/09-107, 27 Aug 2010.
 
-            Prosecutor V. Al-Bashir, Decision Informing the United Nations Security Council and the Assembly of States Parties to the Rome Statute about Omar Al-Bashir's recent visit to Djibouti”, Case No. ICC-02/05-01/09, 12 May 2011.
 
-            Prosecutor V. Al-Bashir, “Decision Requesting Observations about Al-Bashir's Recent Visit to the Republic of Chad”, Case No. ICC-02/05-01/09, 18 Aug 2011.
 
-            Prosecutor V. Al-Bashir, “Decision Pursuant to Article 87(7) of the Rome Statute on the refusal of the Republic of Chad to Comply with the Cooperation Requests Issued by the Court with Respect to the Arrest and Surrender of Al-Bashir”, Case No. ICC-02/05-01/09-140, 13 Dec 2011.
 
-            Prosecutor V. Al-Bashir, “Decision Pursuant to the Article 87(7) on the Failure of the Republic of Malawi to Comply with the Cooperation Requests Issued by the Court With Respect to the Arrest and Surrender of Al-Bashir”, Case No. ICC-02/05-01/09, 12 Dec 2011.