حقوق بشردوستانه و کاربرد سلاح های انفجاری متعارف در مناطق پرجمعیت

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی

چکیده

   در مخاصمات مسلحانه کنونی، کاربرد تسلیحات انفجاری متعارف مانند بمب و موشک در مناطق پرجمعیت و مملوء از سکنه غیرنظامی به امری رایج بدل شده است. در نتیجه استفاده از این قبیل تسلیحات، غیرنظامیان و اموال آنان متحمل تلفات و صدمات مستقیم و غیرمستقیم گسترده­ ای می­ شوند؛ خساراتی که الزاماً همیشه با مزیت نظامی حاصل از حمله تناسبی ندارند. این مقاله، با بررسی مقررات حقوق بین­ المللی بشردوستانه، به چالش کاربرد تسلیحات انفجاری در مناطق پرجمعیت می­ پردازد و به جستجوی پاسخی برای این سؤوال اصلی است که آیا به واقع می­ توان با توسل به مقررات فعلی حقوق بین­ الملل بشردوستانه، دستاویزی برای منع مطلق استفاده از سلاح­ های انفجاری متعارف در مناطق شهری و پرازدحام سراغ نمود؟

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

IHL and the Use of Explosive Conventional Weapons in Populated Areas

چکیده [English]

Recent armed conflicts have confirmed that the use of explosive weapons is a
major cause of civilian death and injury and destruction and damage of civilian
residences and critical civilian infrastructure. Although there is no dispute that
any use of explosive weapons in populated areas must comply with the rules of
IHL, there are divergent views on whether these rules and principles sufficiently
regulate the use of such weapons, or whether there is a need to clarify their
interpretation or even to develop new rules.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Explosive weapons
  • populated areas
  • IHL
  • protection of civilians
  • armed conflicts
الف ) منابعفارسی:
کتاب­ ها:
-        دورمن، کنوت (1393)، عناصر جنایات جنگی در اساسنامه دیوان بین المللی کیفری، ترجمه کمیته بین المللی صلیب سرخ و کمیته ملی حقوق بشردوستانه، تهران: مجد
-        هنکرتز، ژان ماری و دوسوالدبک، لوئیس (1387)، حقوق بین المللی بشردوستانه عرفی، جلد اول، ترجمه دفتر امور بین الملل قوه قضاییه و کمیته بین المللی صلیب سرخ، تهران: مجد
مقاله:
-        زمانی، سیدقاسم و رفیعی، سیدرضا (1392)، کاربرد سلاح های حاوی اورانیوم ضعیف شده از منظر حقوق بشردوستانه بین المللی، مجله حقوقی بین المللی، شماره 49، صص 35-60، تهران: مرکز امور حقوقی بین­ المللی
ب)منابعانگلیسی:
Books:
-          Action on Armed Violence (AOAV) (2016), Unacceptable Harm, Oslo: Government of Norway
-          Bothe, Michael, Partsch, Karl Josef and A.Solf, Waldemar (2013), New Rules for Victims of Armed Conflicts, Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers
-          Cross, Kenneth, Dullum, Ove, Jenzen-Jones, N.R. and Garlasco, March (2016), Explosive Weapons in Populated Areas, Australia: Armament Research Services
-          ICRC (2015), Expert Meeting on Explosive Weapons in Populated Areas: Humanitarian, Legal, Technical and Military Aspects, Geneva: ICRC
-          Sandoz, Yves, Swinarski, Christophe and Zimmrman, Bruno (1987), Commentary on Additional Protocols, Geneva, ICRC
 
Articles:
-          Brehm, Maya (2014), “International Humanitarian Law and the Protection of Civilians from the Effects of Explosive Weapons”, in Harvey, Caroline, Summers, James and D.White, Nigel (eds), Contemporary Challenges to the Laws of War, pp. 235-267, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
-          Durhin, Nathalie (2016), “Protecting Civilians in Urban Areas: A Military Perspective on the Application of International Humanitarian Law”, International Review of the Red Cross, Vol. 98, no. 901, pp. 177-201.
-          Evans, Michael (2016), “Future War in Cities: Urbanization’s Challenge to Strategic Studies in the 21st Century, International Review of the Red Cross, Vol. 98, no. 901, pp. 37-53.
-          Gisel, Laurent (2015), “The Use of Explosive Weapons in Densely Populated Areas and The Prohibition of Indiscriminate Attacks”, in Greppi, Edoardo (ed), Conduct of Hostilities: The Practice, the Law and the Future, pp. 100-115, San Remo: FrancoAngeli
-          Jensen, Eric Talbot (2016), “Precautions against the Effects of Attacks in Urban Areas”, International Review of the Red Cross, Vol. 98, no. 901, pp.147-177.
-          Lucard, Malcolm (2016), “Humanity Under Fire”, The Magazine of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement”: http://www.rcrcmagazine.org/2016/09/humanity-under-fire/
-          Robinson, Isabel and Nohle Ellen (2016), “Proportionality and Precautions in Attack: The Reverberating Effects of Using Explosive Weapons in Populated Areas”, International Review of the Red Cross, Vol. 98, no. 901, 107-147.
-          Strachan, Hew (2011), “The Changing Character of War”, in Haug, KE and Maao, OJ (eds), Conceptualizing Modern War, pp. 1-28, New York: Columbia University Press
-          Watkin, Kenneth (2016), “Military Advantage: A matter of Value, Strategy and Tactics…”, in D.Gill, Terry (ed), Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law, Vol. 17, pp. 277-365, Amsterdam.Breda: T.M.C. Asser Press
-          Wille, Christina (2016), “The Implications of the Reverberating Effects of Explosive Weapons Use in Populated Areas for Implementing the Sustainable Development Goals”, UNIDIR: http://www.inew.org/site/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/ewipa-and-the-sdgs-en-651.pdf
-          Zeitoun, Mark and Tlhami Michael (2016), “The Impact of Explosive Weapons on Urban Services: Direct and Reverberating Effects Across Space and Time”,  International”, International Review of the Red Cross, Vol. 98, no. 901, pp. 53-71.
 
Documents:
-          Draft Convention for the Protection of Civilian Population against New Engines of War, Amsterdam 1938.
-          ICRC Factsheet, June 2016, Explosive Weapons in Populated Areas
-          ICRC News Release, 13 June 2017, Yemen: Health system at breaking point as cholera spreads at unprecedented rate
-          ICRC Report, October 2011, International Humanitarian Law and the Challenges of Contemporary Armed Conflicts, 31IC/11/5.1.2
-          ICRC Report, October 2015, International Humanitarian Law and the Challenges of Contemporary Armed Conflicts, 32IC/15/11
-          Protocol on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Mines, Booby-traps and other Devices (Protocol II to the 1980 Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons) as amended on 3 May 1996.
-          Report of the detailed findings of the Independent Commission of Inquiry established pursuant to Human Rights Council Resolution S-21/1, 22 June 2015, A/HRC/29/CRP.4
-          Report of the Secretary General for the World Humanitarian Summit, 2 February 2016, A/70/709
-          Report of the Secretary General on Children and Armed Conflict, 20 April 2016, A/70/836 – S/2016/360
-          Report of the Secretary General on the Protection of Civilians in Armed Conflict, 13 May 2016, S/2016/447
-          Report of the Secretary General on the Protection of Civilians in Armed Conflict, 22 May 2012, S/2012/376
-          Rules Concerning the Control of Wireless Telegraphy in Time of War and Air Warfare, The Hague, 1923.
-          UNGA Resolution, 21 October 2015, Transforming our World: The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, A/RES/70/1
-          UNICEF UK Report, 2016, Keeping Children Safe in Emergencies
-          UNOCHA Policy Report, 2015, Protecting Civilians from the use of Explosive Weapons in Populated Areas
Cases:
-          ICJ, Advisory Opinion on Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons, 1996.
-          ICTY, Prosecutor v. Milan Martic, Case No. IT-95-11-T, Trial Chamber Judgment, 12 June 2007
-          ICTY, Prosecutor v. Stanislav Galic, Case No. IT-98-29, Trial Chamber Judgment, 5 December 2003.
Web-Sites:
-          https://ihl-database.icrc.org/ihl