اعمال اصل تناسب در مخاصمات مسلحانه غیربین المللی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی

2 دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی

چکیده

درگذشته مخاصمات مسلحانه عمدتاً بین­المللی بوده و کشورها با یکدیگر درگیر جنگ می­شدند لیکن امروزه مخاصمات مسلحانه­ غیربین­المللی و داخلی رواج بیشتری پیدا کرده است و مقررات حاکم بر مخاصمات مسلحانه اغلب به مخاصمات بین­المللی پرداخته­اند و نسبت به مخاصمات غیربین­المللی مقررات کمتری وضع گردیده است. به همین خاطر قابلیت اعمال برخی از مقررات بشردوستانه در زمان این نوع از مخاصمات محل تردید و تأمل است. یکی از مهم­ترین قواعدی که موضوع چنین اختلاف نظری قرار گرفته است، اصل تناسب در زمان مخاصمه مسلحانه است. این اصل بدین معناست که خسارات اتفاقی و جنبیِ ناشی از یک حمله نسبت به جمعیت یا اهداف غیرنظامی نباید فراتر از مزیّت نظامی مستقیم مورد انتظار از آن حمله باشد. پروتکل دوم 1977 الحاقی به کنوانسیون­های چهارگانه ژنو 1949 که به مقررات حاکم بر مخاصمات غیربین‌المللی پرداخته است، به این اصل اشاره نکرده است، لیکن مطابق آن­چه در این نوشتار مورد بررسی است باید اصل تناسب را نسبت به این مخاصمات قابل اعمال دانست.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Principle of proportionality and non-international armed conflicts

نویسندگان [English]

  • Valiollah Noori 1
  • Seyed Ghasem Zamani 2
چکیده [English]

In the past, most armed conflicts were international, but today armed conflicts often are non-international and internal conflicts. However most of international armed conflicts rules are about international armed conflicts and some of them regulate non-international conflicts. Applicability of some of international humanitarian law rules to this kind of conflicts is doubtful. One of these rules is the principle of proportionality.
This principle means that incidental and consequential damages resulting from an attack against civilians or civilian objects should not exceed the direct military advantage expected of the attack. 1977 Additional Protocol II to the 1949 Geneva Conventions which deals with the rules governing non-international conflicts has not referred to this principle. However, in accordance with what is discussed in this paper, the principle of proportionality is applicable to these conflicts.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Principle of Proportionality
  • Non-international Armed Conflict
  • Principle of Distinction
  • Military Necessity
  • Additional Protocol II (1977)
الف  فارسی
-            ایپسون، نات، (1387)، رزمندگان و غیر رزمندگان، ترجمه­ کتایون حسین نژاد، در: فلک دیتر(ویراستار)، حقوق بشردوستانه در مخاصمات مسلحانه، به اهتمام و ویرایش سید قاسم زمانی و نادر ساعد، کمیته­ ملی حقوق مخاصمات، چاپ اول، تهران: موسسه مطالعات و پژوهش­های حقوقی شهر دانش.
-           ممتاز، جمشید و شایگان، فریده، (1393)، حقوق بین‌الملل بشردوستانه دربرابر چالش های مخاصمات مسلحانه­ عصر حاضر، چاپ اول، تهران: موسسه مطالعات و پژوهش‌های حقوقی شهر دانش.
-           ممتاز، جمشید و رنجبریان، امیرحسین، (1393)، حقوق بین‌الملل بشردوستانه مخاصمات مسلحانه­ داخلی، چاپ چهارم، تهران: میزان.
پایان‌نامه‌ها
- فاطمی، احمد، (1392)، ضرورت در حقوق بین‌الملل، رساله­ دکتری، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد علوم و تحقیقات.
- کاظمی ابدی، علیرضا، (1395)، تاثیر آرای محاکم بین‌المللی کیفری بر شناسایی و توسعه­ عرف بشردوستانه­ بین‌المللی، رساله­ی دکتری، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی.
 
ب - انگلیسی
Books
- Bothe, Michael, Partsch, Karl Josef, Solf, Waldemar A. (2013), New Rules for Victims of Armed Conflicts; Commentary on the Two 1977 Protocols Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 1949, Martinus Nijhofff Publishers, Leiden.
 
- Gardam, Judith, (2004), Necessity, Proportionality and the Use of Force by States, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
 
- Henckaerts, Jean-Marie, H and Doswald-Beck, Louise, (2009), Customary International Humanitarian Law, International Committee of Red Cross, Cambridge, V.I: Rules.
 
- Henckaerts, Jean-Marie, H and Doswald-Beck, Louise, (2009), Customary International Humanitarian Law, International Committee of Red Cross, Cambridge, V.II: Practice.
- Melzer, Nils, (2008), The Principle of Distinction under International Humanitarian Law, in: Melzer Nils, Targeted Killing in International Law, Oxford University Press.
 
- Meron, Theodor, (2006), The Humanization of International Law, Leiden, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
 
- Sandoz, C, Swinarski C, Zimmerman B (eds), (1987), Commentary on the Additional Protocols of 8 June 1977 to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, Geneva, ICRC and Dordrecht, Martinus Nijhoff.
 
Articles
- Byron, Christine, (2010), “International Humanitarian Law and Bombing Campaigns: Legitimate Military Objectives and Excessive Collateral Damage”, Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law, Vol. 13.
 
- Crawford, Emily, (2008), “Blurring the Lines between International and Non-International Armed Conflicts”, The Evolution of Customary International Law Applicable in Internal Armed Conflict, Australian International Law Journal, Vol. 15.
- Dinstein, Yoram Dinstein, (last ed. 2009), “Military Necessity”, Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law [MPEPIL].
 
- Forrest, Craig J.S., (2006), “The Doctrine of Military Necessity and the Protection of Cultural Property During Armed Conflicts”, California Western International Law Journal, Vol. 37, No. 2.
 
- Hayashi, Nobuo, (2010), “Requirements of Military Necessity in International Humanitarian Law and International Criminal Law”, Boston University International Law Journal, Vol. 28, No. 1.
 
- kasher, Asa, (2006), “The Principle of Distinction”, Journal of Military Ethics, Vol. 6, No. 2.
 
- Meron, Theodor, (2000), “The Humanization of Humanitarian Law”, American Journal of International Law, Vol. 94.
 
 
Documents
- Commentary on the Program on Humanitarian Policy and Conflict Research (HPCR) Manual on International Law Applicable to Air and Missile Warfare, (2010).
 
- Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May be Deemed to be Excessively Injurious or to have Indiscriminate Effects, (1981).
 
- International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), (1996), Guidelines for Military Manuals and Instructions on the Protection of the Environment in Times of Armed Conflict, International Review of the Red Cross, No. 311.
 
- International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), (2011), International Humanitarian Law and the Challenges of Contemporary Armed Conflicts, Report, 31IC/11/5.1.2, Geneva, Switzerland.
 
- International Institute of Humanitarian Law, (2006), The Manual on the Law of Non-International Armed Conflict, Sanremo.
 
Program on Humanitarian Policy and Conflict Research at Harvard University (HPCR), Harvard Manual on International Law Applicable to Air and Missile Warfare, 2009.
 
- Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 and relating to the Protection of Victims of Non-International Armed Conflicts (Protocol II), 8 June 1977.
 
- Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, 1981.
 
- Protocol on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Mines, Booby-Traps and Other Devices as amended on 3 May 1996.
 
- Report of the UN Commission of Enquiry on Darfur to the United Nations Secretary-General, Pursuant to.
 
- Second Protocol to the Hague Convention of 1954 for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict 1999.
 
- Security Council Resolution 1564 of 18 September; Geneva, 25 January 2005.
 
- The Lieber Code, Instructions for the Government of Armies of the United States in the Field, prepared by Francis Lieber, promulgated as General Orders No. 100 by President Lincoln, 24 April 1863.
 
- United Nations Commission on Human Rights. Resolution 2000/58, “Situation in the Republic of Chechnya of the Russian Federation,” 25 April 2000, UN Doc. E/CN.4/RES/2000/58.
 
- United Nations (UN) Security Council Resolution 1160, UN Doc S/RES/1160 (31 March 1998) and UN SC Res 1199, UN Doc S/RES/1199 (23 September 1998).
 
- UNGA Res. 2444 (XXIII), Respect for Human Rights in Armed Conflicts, Dec. 19, 1968.
 
Cases
- International Court of Justice, (1996), Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons (Advisory Opinion).
 
- International Criminal Tribunal for Yugoslavia (ICTY), The Prosecuter v. Kupreškić et al., Trial Judgement, Case No. IT-95-16, 14 Jan 2000, para 513.
 
- International Criminal Tribunal for Yugoslavia (ICTY), The Prosecuter v. Milan Martić, Decision, The Tribunal Issues an International Arrest Warrant Against Milan Martić, Case No. IT-95-11-I, March 8, 1996, para. 18.
 
- International Criminal Tribunal for Yugoslavia (ICTY), Prosecutor v. Tadic, Decision on the Defence Motion for Interlocutory Appeal on Jurisdiction, Appeals Chamber, Case IT-94-1, (Oct. 2, 1995).