انتقال میان حوضه ای آب: مبانی و چالش های حقوقی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

عضو هیأت علمی دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی دانشگاه مازندران

چکیده

انتقال میان­حوضه­ای آب آثار محیط زیستی، اقتصادی و اجتماعی منفی مانند تهدید منابع آبی کشور، بروز نابرابری در منافع و هزینه­ها، اجبار به جابجایی ساکنان پیرامون حوضه آبی و بروز هزینه­های ناخواسته در پی دارد که حل این مشکلات مستلزم تنظیم انتقال آب توسط قواعد حقوقی است تا بتوان با استفاده از سازوکارهای حقوقی انتقال پایدار و منصفانه آب را تضمین کرد. این سازکارها شامل حفظ یکپارچگی اکوسیستمی حوضه آبی، تضمین بهره‌برداری پایدار، مدیریت یکپارچه آب، الزام به ارزیابی آثار طرح­های انتقال آب و جبران خسارت­های ناشی از این انتقال می­شود. با آنکه در برخی نظام‌های حقوقی، مقرراتی برای تنظیم انتقال میان­حوضه­ای آب تصویب شده­ است اما نظام حقوقی ایران بطور سیستماتیک به این موضوع مهم نپرداخته و صرفا برخی قواعد پراکنده در این زمینه وجود دارد. هدف این مقاله بررسی مبانی و شناسایی چالش­های حقوقی موجود در انتقال میان­حوضه­ای آب است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Legal Dimensions of Inter-Basin Water Transfer

نویسنده [English]

  • Masoud Faryadi
Associate professor of the faculty of law & political sciences of University of Mazandaran
چکیده [English]

Inter-basin water transfer has been suggested as a short-time solution to the water scarcity problem. However, this solution makes some environmental, social and economic problems including but not limited to endangering water resources, unequal distribution of social and economic costs and benefits. Solving these problems involves regulating the transfer of water by appropriate legal provisions so that it can guarantee the reasonable, sustainable and equitable transfer of water through legal mechanisms. Inter-basin water transfer has been regulated in some legal systems through some mechanisms such as the implementation of environmental impact assessment of the inter-basin water transfer projects and water protection rules. Adapting a national strategy for integrated water management and public participation in water distribution has been offered to manage water transfer in a sustainable way. The legal system should assure that the inter-basin water transfer is the last resort and is exercised based on ex-ante and ex-post assessments. Inter-basin water transfer has not been regulated in the Iranian legal system in spite of the many water transfer projects and therefore there is an urgent need to its regulation by the appropriate legal rules.   

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • "Inter-basin water transfer"
  • "water law"
  • "integrated water management"
  • "environmental impact assessment"
  • "water regulation"
منابع
الف- فارسی
اسناد
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