بررسی حقوقی رویکرد ایکائو در مدرنیزه کردن کنوانسیون 1970 لاهه با تصویب پروتکل 2010 پکن

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

پژوهشگر

چکیده

حادثه 11 سپتامبر نشان داد رژیم کنونی حقوقی و نظارتی بین المللی از کاستیها و ضعفهای زیادی برای برخورد جدی با جرم مداخله غیرقانونی علیه هواپیمای مسافربری رنج می‌برد. در این زمینه، پروتکل 2010 پکن تلاش میکند رویکردهای بازدارنده جدیدی را برای مقابله با جرم هواپیماربایی فراهم آورد به گونهای که بتوان چنین جرمی را قبل از ارتکاب به موقع شناسایی و کشف کرد. به همین دلیل پروتکل جرم‌انگاری می‌کند از جرائم جانبی جدید زیادی در ارتباط با هواپیماربایی از قبیل فراری دادن متهم از تحقیقات کیفری، تهدید کردن دیگران برای ارتکاب عمل مجرمانه یا فراهم آوردن شرایطی که دیگران چنین تهدیداتی را دریافت کنند؛ تلاش، همکاری، مساعدت، سازماندهی، هدایت کردن و توافق با دیگران از هر راهی برای ارتکاب جرم هواپیماربایی. برای اولین بار، پروتکل قائل به مسئولیت حقوقی و کیفری برای موسسات حقوقی میشود که به "بند القاعده" معروف شده است و نیز "بند استثنای نظامی" نیز از موضوعات چالش برانگیز پروتکل میباشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Legal Analysis of the ICAO Approach on Modernizing the 1970 Hague Convention by the Adoption of 2010 Beijing Protocol

نویسنده [English]

  • Hedayatollah Shenasaei
Researcher
چکیده [English]

The September 11 attacks showed that existing international legal and regulatory regime suffers from many gaps and deficiencies to deal with the offence of unlawful interference against civil aviation. In this regard, the 2010 Beijing Protocol seeks to provide new preventive approaches to deal with aerial hijacking so as to make it possible for the timely identification of such offences before being committed. For such reason, the protocol criminalizes many new ancillary offenses related to hijacking, such as assisting the offender to evade criminal investigation and prosecution. Threatening to commit criminal acts or causing any person to receive such threats is also considered as offence itself, if the threat is credible. Also, conspiracy with others to commit terrorist acts, regardless of whether the terrorist crime is actually committed or not is another example. Therefore, for the first time, the protocol recognizes legal and criminal liability for legal entities which is known as "Al-Qaeda Clause". The "Military Exception Clause", however, has been considered as a challenging matter in the Beijing Protocol.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • "ICAO Approach"
  • "Modernizing"
  • "Beijing Protocol"
  • Hague Convention
  • Criminalization
الف- فارسی
کتاب‌ها
-            ناجی راد، محمد علی، (1387)، جهانی شدن تروریسم، چاپ اول، تهران: دفتر مطالعات سیاسی و بین‌المللی.
-            جباری، منصور، (1393)، حقوق هوایی از منظر داخلی و بین‌المللی، تهران: موسسه مطالعات و پژوهش‌های حقوقی.
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-            نواده توپچی، حسین، (1395)، مقدمه‌ای بر حقوق بین‌الملل هوایی (بررسی کنوانسیون شیکاگو و ضمائم)، چاپ دوم، تهران: انتشارات خرسندی.
 
مقاله
-            محمودی، سید هادی، (1394)، «ابعاد حقوقی مقابله با هواپیماربایی در پرتو تحولات حقوقی پس از 11 سپتامبر 2001»، مطالعات حقوق کیفری و جرم شناسی، دوره 2، شماره‌های 2و 3.
 
ب- انگلیسی
Books
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 -            Anand, V.K, (1984), Terrorism and Security, Deep & Deep Publication, New Delhi.
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Articles
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 -            Abeyratne, Ruwantissa, (1996), “Attempts at Ensuring Peace and Security in International Aviation”, 24 Transp. L.J. 27.
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 -            Yool, Jung Sang, (2005), “Alegal Analysis of Aviation Security under the International Legal Regime”, Master diss., Mc Gill University.
 -            Shenasaei, Hedayatollah & Shirvani, Faramarz, (2017), “The ICAO Role to Improve Aviation Security against Acts of Unlawful Interference”, International Journal of Social Science and Humanities Research, Vol. 5, Issue 3, at < http://www.researchpublish.com/>.
 -            Chung, D.Y, (1976), “Some Legal Aspects of Aircraft Hijacking in International Law”, PhD Dissertation, University of Tennessee.
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Documents
-            United Nations, the Charter of the United Nations, 1 UNTS XVI, 24 October 1945.
 -            Convention on International Civil Aviation (Chicago Convention) December 7, 1944.
 -            Convention on Offences and Certain other Acts Committed on Board Aircraft [Tokyo Convention] (14 September 1963).
 -            Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Seizure of Aircraft [Hague Convention] (16 December 1970).
 -            ICAO, Annex 17: Security: Safeguarding International Civil Aviation against Acts of Unlawful Interference, at <http:// www. icao.int/ Security/ SFP/ Pages/Annex17.aspx>.
 -            Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Civil Aviation [Montreal Convention] (23 September 1971).
 -            Protocol for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts of Violence at Airports Serving International Civil Aviation.
 -            The Supplementary Protocol to the 1970 Hague Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Seizure of Aircraft (Beijing Supplementary Protocol).
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 -            Supplementary to the Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Civil Aviation [Montreal Supplementary Protocol] (23 September 1971).
 
Websites
        - World Health Organization (WHO) at < http://www.who.int/en/>.
         - IATA, Press Releases, Airlines to welcome 3.6 Billion Passengers in 2016, 6 December 2012, at <http://www.iata.org/ pressroom/pr/pages/2012-12-06-01.aspx>.
        - IATA, Press Releases, China Accounts for Nearly One in Four Additional Passengers, 2012, at <http://www.iata.org/pressroom/pr/pages/2012-12-06-01.aspx>.
       - Aviation Safety Network (ASN) < http://aviation-safety.net/index.php